Table 1—

Anthropometric, metabolic, and laboratory features and lifestyle habits of study subjects stratified for quartiles of BMI (kg/m2)

Quartile IQuartile IIQuartile IIIQuartile IV
21.7 ± 1.3 (18.5–23.2)24.6 ± 0.7 (23.3–25.5)26.9 ± 0.9 (25.5–29.0)32.0 ± 1.7 (30.0–35.3)
Age (years)31 ± 735 ± 637 ± 937 ± 9
Height (cm)177 ± 6177 ± 6177 ± 7175 ± 8
Weight (kg)*68 ± 477 ± 584 ± 798 ± 9
Systolic BP (mmHg)121 ± 11119 ± 6125 ± 9129 ± 9
Diastolic BP (mmHg)79 ± 1078 ± 683 ± 883 ± 7
Creatinine (μmol/l)78 ± 1780 ± 1279 ± 1080 ± 13
Glucose (mmol/l)4.8 ± 0.34.9 ± 0.55.0 ± 0.65.2 ± 0.5
Insulin (pmol/l)66 ± 3170 ± 28101 ± 35105 ± 38
Cholesterol (mmol/l)
    Total4.22 ± 0.684.81 ± 0.615.08 ± 1.304.84 ± 1.29
    HDL1.49 ± 0.341.47 ± 0.371.32 ± 0.291.12 ± 0.29
    Triglycerides0.87 ± 0.511.02 ± 0.821.09 ± 0.451.91 ± 0.99
FFAs (mmol/l)0.59 ± 0.190.58 ± 0.250.62 ± 0.220.60 ± 0.16
Leptin (ng/ml)2.9 ± 1.26.5 ± 5.27.0 ± 3.313.5 ± 6.0*
Adiponectin (μg/ml)6.9 ± 3.76.9 ± 3.76.2 ± 2.85.2 ± 1.2
Resistin (ng/ml)3.5 ± 1.03.4 ± 1.43.4 ± 0.83.4 ± 0.4
TSH (mU/l)1.2 ± 0.91.2 ± 1.21.1 ± 1.01.5 ± 0.6
Smoking habits3/206/218/205/20
PAI9.1 ± 1.68.1 ± 1.28.0 ± 1.37.7 ± 0.9
HOMA2-S%88 ± 3878 ± 3452 ± 1949 ± 20
HOMA2-B%128 ± 40126 ± 28160 ± 42156 ± 41
HOMA21.39 ± 0.651.52 ± 0.582.15 ± 0.762.4 ± 0.97
  • Data are means ± SD (BMI range).

  • *

    * P < 0.001 vs. all other quartiles;

  • P < 0.05 vs. quartiles I and II;

  • P < 0.03 vs. quartile I; one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc analysis. BP, blood pressure; HOMA-B%, HOMA of β-cell function; PAI, physical activity index.