Table 2—

Age-adjusted ORs (95% CI) for progression to pre-diabetes according to selected baseline characteristics

Case patientsControl subjectOR (95% CI)
BMI (kg/m2)
    <2743 (47.8)161 (60.3)1.00
    ≥2747 (52.2)106 (39.7)1.62 (0.99–2.66)
Family history of diabetes
    No48 (57.1)189 (73.3)1.00
    Yes36 (42.9)69 (26.7)1.85 (1.12–3.07)*
Smoking
    Never34 (37.4)141 (51.8)1.00
    Ever57 (62.6)131 (48.2)1.95 (1.15–3.31)*
Current alcohol drinker
    No35 (38.5)81 (30.1)1.00
    Yes56 (61.5)188 (69.9)0.65 (0.38–1.12)
Hypertension
    No54 (61.4)213 (79.2)1.00
    Yes34 (38.6)56 (20.8)2.39 (1.35–4.22)
Physical activity (total METs in past 7 days)
    < median52 (57.1)136 (50.0)1.00
    ≥ median39 (42.9)136 (50.0)0.82 (0.40–1.37)
HOMA-IR
    1 (low)15 (17.0)90 (33.2)1.00
    235 (39.8)91 (32.6)2.19 (1.12–4.28)*
    3 (high)38 (42.2)90 (33.2)2.75 (1.37–5.54)
ACR (mg/g)
    <2078 (92.9)232 (94.3)1.00
    ≥206 (7.1)14 (5.7)0.94 (0.34–2.60)
eGFR
    < median52 (57.1)134 (49.1)1.00
    ≥ median39 (42.9)139 (50.9)0.84 (0.50–1.40)
Serum creatinine (g/l)
    < median39 (42.9)130 (47.6)1.00 (0.66–2.11)
    ≥ median52 (57.1)143 (52.4)1.18
  • Data are n (%) or ORs (95% CI) from conditional logistic regression adjusted for age. Case-patients and control subjects matched on year of baseline interview, sex, race, and year of study enrollment.

  • *

    * P < 0.05;

  • P < 0.01.