Table 2—

Unadjusted and adjusted* Cox proportional hazards regression models predicting all-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality in the TRIAD population (n = 8733), 2000–2004

CharacteristicUnadjusted HR (95% CI) for all- cause mortalityAdjusted HR (95% CI) for all- cause mortalityUnadjusted HR (95% CI) for cardiovascular mortalityAdjusted HR (95% CI) for cardiovascular mortalityUnadjusted HR (95% CI) for noncardiovascular mortalityAdjusted HR (95% CI) for noncardiovascular mortality
n791 of 8,733791 of 8,733336 of 8,278336 of 8,278455 of 8,397455 of 8,397
Age (years)1.06 (1.05–1.07)1.04 (1.03–1.05)1.07 (1.06–1.08)1.05 (1.04–1.06)1.06 (1.05–1.06)1.04 (1.03–1.05)
Sex (ref. female)1.39 (1.21–1.60)1.57 (1.35–1.83)1.34 (1.08–1.66)1.54 (1.21–1.94)1.46 (1.21–1.75)1.65 (1.35–2.02)
Race/ethnicity (ref. non-Hispanic white)
    Hispanic0.61 (0.49–0.77)0.72 (0.55–0.96)0.58 (0.41–0.82)0.65 (0.41–1.01)0.63 (0.47–0.84)0.74 (0.51–1.06)
    African American0.94 (0.78–1.13)0.80 (0.64–1.00)1.01 (0.76–1.34)0.87 (0.61–1.23)0.89 (0.69–1.14)0.71 (0.53–0.97)
    Asian/Pacific Islander0.51 (0.40–0.65)0.81 (0.59–1.13)0.46 (0.32–0.69)0.85 (0.51–1.41)0.53 (0.38–0.72)0.78 (0.52–1.20)
    Other0.71 (0.54–0.93)0.80 (0.60–1.06)0.97 (0.68–1.40)1.13 (0.76–1.68)0.52 (0.35–0.78)0.58 (0.38–0.89)
Education (ref. college graduate or more)
    Some high school or less2.35 (1.86–2.96)1.28 (0.98–1.68)2.68 (1.85–3.87)1.31 (0.86–1.99)2.22 (1.64–2.99)1.28 (0.90–1.82)
    High school graduate1.55 (1.22–1.97)1.13 (0.88–1.47)1.68 (1.15–2.46)1.16 (0.77–1.74)1.48 (1.09–2.01)1.14 (0.81–1.59)
    Some college1.30 (1.01–1.66)1.17 (0.91–1.51)1.45 (0.99–2.16)1.26 (0.84–1.88)1.20 (0.87–1.96)1.09 (0.78–1.53)
Income (ref. >$75,000)
    <$15,0003.53 (2.64–4.72)1.82 (1.30–2.54)4.67 (2.87–7.59)2.20 (1.28–3.79)3.07 (2.14–4.41)1.60 (1.04–2.45)
    $15,000–$40,0002.51 (1.86–3.37)1.58 (1.15–2.17)3.11 (1.89–5.11)1.78 (1.05–3.00)2.23 (1.54–3.24)1.44 (0.97–2.15)
    $40,000–$75,0001.37 (0.99–1.91)1.19 (0.85–1.67)1.64 (0.95–2.83)1.33 (0.76–2.32)1.24 (0.82–1.89)1.07 (0.70–1.63)
Duration of diabetes (years) (ref. <9)
    ≥91.88 (1.63–2.18)1.20 (1.02–1.41)2.28 (1.81–2.88)1.37 (1.06–1.77)1.68 (1.39–2.03)1.08 (0.87–1.33)
Treatment of diabetes (ref. diet or exercise)
    Oral medication plus insulin0.76 (0.58–0.98)0.61 (0.46–0.80)0.89 (0.58–1.38)0.72 (0.45–1.14)0.68 (0.49–0.94)0.51 (0.36–0.72)
    Oral medication only1.08 (0.80–1.47)0.70 (0.50–0.98)1.42 (0.87–2.32)0.88 (0.52–1.52)0.90 (0.61–1.33)0.57 (0.37–0.87)
    Insulin only1.40 (1.06–1.85)0.84 (0.62–1.14)1.74 (1.10–2.75)1.03 (0.62–1.71)1.24 (0.87–1.76)0.71 (0.48–1.04)
BMI (kg/m2) (ref. ≥26 to <30)
    <261.50 (1.24–1.82)1.43 (1.13–1.69)1.61 (1.20–2.16)1.50 (1.10–2.04)1.45 (1.13–1.87)1.35 (1.04–1.76)
    ≥30 to <351.06 (0.87–1.29)1.21 (0.99–1.48)1.11 (0.82–1.50)1.30 (0.95–1.77)1.03 (0.79–1.33)1.19 (0.91–1.54)
    ≥350.83 (0.67–1.02)1.11 (0.89–1.38)0.86 (0.62–1.19)1.21 (0.86–1.71)0.80 (0.61–1.06)1.05 (0.78–1.40)
Smoking1.16 (0.97–1.37)1.44 (1.20–1.74)1.08 (0.82–1.41)1.45 (1.09–1.95)1.23 (0.98–1.53)1.46 (1.15–1.86)
Hypertension1.78 (1.49–2.13)1.12 (0.92–1.36)2.28 (1.69–3.06)1.26 (0.92–1.73)1.55 (1.24–1.95)1.07 (0.83–1.36)
Dyslipidemia0.85 (0.74–0.98)0.76 (0.66–0.89)0.91 (0.73–1.13)0.77 (0.61–0.98)0.81 (0.67–0.98)0.73 (0.59–0.89)
Macrovascular disease3.74 (3.23–4.32)1.46 (1.23–1.74)5.99 (4.70–7.64)2.40 (1.79–3.20)2.88 (2.39–3.47)1.10 (0.88–1.37)
Retinopathy1.72 (1.47–2.02)1.04 (0.87–1.24)1.61 (1.26–2.07)0.90 (0.68–1.19)1.84 (1.50–2.27)1.17 (0.93–1.48)
Nephropathy2.04 (1.75–2.37)1.46 (1.23–1.73)2.13 (1.69–2.68)1.54 (1.18–2.01)2.03 (1.66–2.48)1.46 (1.16–1.84)
Peripheral neuropathy1.70 (1.45–1.99)0.90 (0.75–1.07)1.64 (1.28–2.10)0.77 (0.58–1.01)1.78 (1.45–2.20)0.99 (0.79–1.24)
Charlson index (ref. <1)
    ≥1 to <21.08 (0.56–2.08)1.44 (0.74–2.80)0.57 (0.25–1.28)0.67 (0.29–1.56)2.28 (0.72–7.27)3.27 (1.01–10.58)
    ≥2 to <31.96 (1.03–3.72)2.01 (1.04–3.90)1.15 (0.53–2.52)0.91 (0.40–2.09)3.89 (1.23–12.30)4.57 (1.42–14.73)
    ≥36.66 (3.56–12.45)4.38 (2.26–8.47)4.36 (2.06–9.24)1.84 (0.80–4.22)12.93 (4.15–40.31)10.92 (3.40–35.06)
  • *

    * Adjusted for all characteristics listed in the table.