Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of diabetic case and control subjects*

CharacteristicCase subjectsControl subjectsP
n1,5842,198
Age (years)62.7 ± 7.062.3 ± 7.0
BMI (kg/m2)32.3 ± 7.027.6 ± 5.9<0.0001
Waist circumference (inches)38.2 ± 6.032.8 ± 5.0<0.0001
Waist-to-hip ratio0.86 ± 0.080.80 ± 0.07<0.0001
Ethnicity
    White968 (61.1)968 (44.0)
    Black366 (23.1)732 (33.3)
    Hispanic152 (9.60)303 (13.8)
    Asian/Pacific Islanders98 (6.21)195 (8.85)
Family history of diabetes849 (57.5)772 (37.9)<0.0001
Current hormone therapy34.243.7<0.0001
Smoking status0.02
    Never50.355.8
    Past42.037.4
    Current7.746.82
Alcohol use<0.0001
    Nondrinker17.316.1
    Past drinker27.221.5
    <1 drink/month15.913.1
    ≥1 drink/month to <1 drink/week20.720.3
    ≥1 drink/week18.928.9
Physical activity (MET · h−1 · week−1)9.84 ± 12.412.8 ± 14.4<0.0001
Biomarkers
    Fasting insulin (μIU/ml)12.6 (8.14–18.6)6.40 (4.40–9.61)<0.0001
    Fasting glucose (mmol/ml)6.78 (5.89–8.17)5.11 (4.83–5.44)<0.0001
    HOMA-IR4.03 (2.48–6.28)1.44 (0.97–2.27)<0.0001
    HOMA-B75.1 (44.6–118)81.7 (56.1–120)<0.0001
  • Data are means ± SD, n (%), percentages, or median (interquartile range) unless otherwise indicated. Medians and interquartile ranges are provided for continuous variables with skewed distributions.

  • *

    * Case and control subjects were matched on age, race/ethnicity, clinical center, time of blood draw, and duration of follow-up.

  • P values for the difference between patients and control subjects were determined by mixed-effects regression for continuous variables and by a matched χ2 test for variables expressed as percentages.