Table 2—

RRs of diabetes according to per SD increment of HOMA-based markers

RR (95% CI)*
Total womenWhite womenBlack womenHispanic womenAsian/Pacific Islander women
Entirety of case-control samples
    Adjusted for matching factors
        Fasting glucose3.65 (3.22–4.14)4.12 (3.33–5.09)3.01 (2.49–3.62)3.37 (2.44–4.64)6.26 (3.40–11.5)
        Fasting insulin2.72 (2.48–2.99)3.36 (2.89–3.91)2.17 (1.86–2.53)2.31 (1.82–2.93)2.67 (1.94–3.68)
        HOMA-IR3.57 (3.20–3.98)4.52 (3.75–5.45)2.83 (2.39–3.36)3.17 (2.39–4.19)3.52 (2.41–5.14)
        HOMA-B0.82 (0.77–0.87)0.89 (0.82–0.96)0.69 (0.61–0.78)0.73 (0.61–0.88)1.00 (0.79–1.26)
    Multivariable model 1
        Fasting glucose3.54 (3.02–4.13)3.94 (3.03–5.13)3.18 (2.45–4.14)3.62 (2.27–5.76)17.5 (2.74–112)
        Fasting insulin2.25 (1.99–2.54)2.57 (2.11–3.12)1.93 (1.56–2.40)1.79 (1.29–2.48)3.04 (1.82–5.08)
        HOMA-IR3.40 (2.95–3.92)4.24 (3.33–5.39)2.78 (2.20–3.52)2.85 (1.95–4.15)4.68 (2.53–8.66)
        HOMA-B0.57 (0.51–0.63)0.54 (0.47–0.63)0.53 (0.43–0.64)0.54 (0.40–0.72)0.69 (0.48–1.00)
    Multivariable model 2§
        Fasting glucose3.37 (2.88–3.95)3.76 (2.88–4.92)3.10 (2.37–4.04)3.40 (2.14–5.40)24.2 (1.57–373)
        Fasting insulin1.90 (1.67–2.17)2.10 (1.70–2.58)1.72 (1.37–2.16)1.58 (1.12–2.22)2.68 (1.52–4.73)
        HOMA-IR3.05 (2.63–3.53)3.79 (2.94–4.88)2.59 (2.03–3.30)2.66 (1.80–3.91)4.18 (2.18–8.04)
        HOMA-B0.52 (0.46–0.58)0.50 (0.42–0.59)0.48 (0.39–0.60)0.49 (0.35–0.68)0.59 (0.37–0.93)
After fasting glucose–based exclusion
    Adjusted for matching factors
        Fasting glucose3.73 (3.21–4.35)4.14 (3.23–5.32)3.08 (2.43–3.90)3.53 (2.42–5.16)6.05 (3.11–11.8)
        Fasting insulin2.28 (2.04–2.56)2.78 (2.31–3.35)1.74 (1.45–2.09)2.16 (1.59–2.94)2.70 (1.74–4.19)
        HOMA-IR2.62 (2.32–2.96)3.18 (2.59–3.89)2.00 (1.65–2.42)2.53 (1.82–3.52)3.37 (2.05–5.55)
        HOMA-B1.25 (1.14–1.38)1.51 (1.31–1.74)0.96 (0.81–1.13)1.14 (0.88–1.48)1.36 (0.97–1.91)
    Multivariable model 1
        Fasting glucose3.54 (2.92–4.30)3.75 (2.75–5.12)3.35 (2.34–4.79)3.80 (2.21–6.55)15.8 (2.48–100.5)
        Fasting insulin1.88 (1.61–2.19)2.16 (1.68–2.78)1.53 (1.16–2.02)1.62 (1.09–2.40)3.02 (1.52–5.99)
        HOMA-IR2.30 (1.95–2.71)2.75 (2.10–3.61)1.87 (1.40–2.50)1.96 (1.29–2.98)3.94 (1.78–8.68)
        HOMA-B0.88 (0.77–1.01)0.90 (0.74–1.11)0.71 (0.55–0.92)0.80 (0.56–1.15)1.30 (0.78–2.16)
    Multivariable model 2§
        Fasting glucose3.33 (2.74–4.06)3.53 (2.58–4.85)3.24 (2.24–4.70)3.55 (2.05–6.15)145 (0.19–111,426)#
        Fasting insulin1.62 (1.38–1.91)1.88 (1.44–2.46)1.34 (1.00–1.81)1.38 (0.90–2.11)4.95 (1.46–16.7)
        HOMA-IR2.03 (1.71–2.41)2.46 (1.84–3.28)1.68 (1.24–2.27)1.73 (1.11–2.71)10.0 (1.50–66.8)
        HOMA-B0.77 (0.66–0.89)0.81 (0.65–1.02)0.62 (0.47–0.83)0.68 (0.46–1.01)1.25 (0.61–2.56)
  • Data are RRs (95% CIs).

  • *

    * RRs for predictors as continuous variables were RR per 1 SD for log-transformed values; each SD was equivalent to each increase of 1.11 mmol/l in fasting glucose, 1.84 uIU/ml in fasting insulin, 1.93 in HOMA-IR, and 1.79 in HOMA-%B.

  • Matching factors included age, race/ethnicity, clinical center, and time of blood draw.

  • Model 1 was adjusted for matching factors, BMI, alcohol intake, level of physical activity, cigarette smoking status, the use or nonuse of postmenopausal hormone therapy, and family history of diabetes.

  • §

    § Model 2 made additional adjustment for waist-to-hip ratio in model 1.

  • After excluding women who had a single measure of fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl at baseline.

  • #

    # Due to very low statistical power, this RR estimate and its variability became unusually large.