Table 3—

RRs of diabetes according to HOMA-based markers stratified by BMI, waist, physical activity, hormone therapy use, and family history of diabetes

VariableFasting glucose
Fasting insulin
HOMA-IR
HOMA-B
RR (95% CI)*P for interactionRR (95% CI)*P for interactionRR (95% CI)*P for interactionRR (95% CI)*P for interaction
BMI (kg/m2)
    <2515.5 (2.09–115)0.531.36 (0.85–2.17)0.032.61 (1.46–4.66)0.030.24 (0.12–0.50)0.06
    ≥253.53 (2.88–4.32)2.31 (1.97–2.70)3.66 (3.02–4.44)0.56 (0.50–0.64)
Waist circumference (inches)
    <354.21 (2.99–5.94)0.941.90 (1.51–2.38)0.423.04 (2.33–3.97)0.280.45 (0.36–0.56)0.40
    ≥355.35 (3.29–8.70)2.43 (1.87–3.14)4.26 (3.05–5.96)0.53 (0.43–0.65)
Physical activity (MET · h−1 · week−1)
    <Median3.98 (2.86–5.53)0.982.11 (1.70–2.62)0.863.12 (2.44–3.97)0.870.53 (0.44–0.64)0.36
    ≥Median3.01 (2.26–3.98)1.92 (1.49–2.46)2.92 (2.20–3.88)0.52 (0.42–0.64)
Current hormone use
    Yes3.05 (2.19–4.23)0.412.10 (1.56–2.84)0.432.98 (2.14–4.15)0.960.61 (0.48–0.78)0.16
    No3.40 (2.69–4.29)2.12 (1.78–2.53)3.20 (2.60–3.93)0.54 (0.47–0.63)
Family history of diabetes
    Yes3.60 (2.63–4.94)0.391.98 (1.58–2.48)0.833.10 (2.39–4.03)0.290.44 (0.36–0.55)0.12
    No3.39 (2.53–4.54)2.08 (1.67–2.58)3.02 (2.35–3.90)0.58 (0.49–0.70)
  • RRs for predictors as continuous variables were RR per 1 SD for log-transformed values; each SD was equivalent to each increase of 1.11 mmol/l in fasting glucose, 1.84 uIU/ml in fasting insulin, 1.93 in HOMA-IR, and 1.79 in HOMA-B.

  • *

    * The multivariable model was adjusted for matching factors, BMI, alcohol intake, level of physical activity, cigarette smoking status, the use or nonuse of postmenopausal hormone therapy, and family history of diabetes.

  • Median for physical activity was 8.333 metabolic equivalent (MET) · h−1 · week−1.

  • Log likelihood ratio test was performed to test interactions.