Table 1—

Determinants of CCR* use among individuals who did not receive any cardioprotective drug in the year prior to antidiabetes treatment initiation (n = 12,150)

Characteristicsn (%)Unadjusted OR (99% CI)PAdjusted OR (99% CI)P
Age (years)72.4 ± 5.80.92 (0.90–0.94)<0.00010.90 (0.89–0.92)<0.0001
Sex
    Male6,996 (57.6)1.36 (1.12–1.63)<0.00011.08 (0.89–1.32)0.2971
    Female5,154 (42.4)1.001.00
Residency area
    Rural3,163 (26.0)1.24 (1.01–152)0.00761.21 (0.98–1.51)0.0225
    Agglomeration1,379 (11.4)1.21 (0.92–1.61)0.07631.18 (0.88–1.59)0.1536
    Metropolitan7,477 (61.5)1.001.00
    Unknown131 (1.01)
Reference year
    19982,815 (23.2)1.001.00
    19992,563 (21.1)1.08 (0.74–1.57)0.60121.06 (0.72–1.56)0.6849
    20002,287 (18.8)2.15 (1.54–3.00)<0.00012.17 (1.53–3.06)<0.0001
    20012,315 (19.1)3.19 (2.32–4.37)<0.00013.35 (2.41–4.65)<0.0001
    20022,170 (17.9)4.05 (2.97–5.52)<0.00014.44 (3.21–6.13)<0.0001
Antidiabetes agent initiated posthospitalization
    Yes428 (3.5)2.53 (1.78–3.61)<0.00011.48 (0.97–2.25)0.0171
    No11,722 (96.5)1.001.00
Cardiovascular disease in the year prior to antidiabetes treatment initiation
    Yes1,467 (12.1)5.65 (4.64–6.87)<0.00015.85 (4.65–7.37)<0.0001
    No10,683 (87.9)1.001.00
Medical visits in the year prior to antidiabetes treatment initiation4.5 ± 4.70.99 (0.96–1.01)0.07870.99 (0.96–1.01)0.0920
Hospitalization in the year prior to antidiabetes treatment initiation
    Yes2,851 (23.5)2.063 (1.71–2.49)<0.00011.20 (0.94–1.52)0.0530
    No9,299 (76.5)1.001.00
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * A person was deemed to have a CCR if there was at least one claim for each of the following in the year following the index date: an antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and antiplatelet drug. Each of drug could be used at different times during follow-up.

  • Metropolitan: urban core of at least 100,000 people and its adjacent municipalities; agglomeration: urban core of at least 10,000 people and its adjacent municipalities; rural: municipalities not included in the two former categories.

  • A person was deemed to have a cardiovascular disease if there were any outpatient or hospital ICD (International Classification of Diseases)-9 code for ischemic cardiac disease, heart failure, or cerebrovascular disease or a procedural code of revascularization, coronary bypass, or peripheral limb revascularization recorded. A person with a prescription claim for a nitrate was also considered to have cardiovascular disease.