Table 2—

Methods used to detect for congenital anomalies in studies of women with prepregnancy diabetes

Year (reference)Method(s) described for the systematic detection of congenital anomalies
Were these detection methods equally applied to all women?Were assessors masked as to the mother's glycemic control?
Anatomical ultrasound in uteroMaternal serum or amniotic fluid α-fetoproteinPhysical examination of all infants after birthAutopsy of all fetal and neonatal deaths
1987 (6)SomeNoYesNoNoNA
1988 (7)YesNoYesYesYesNA
1989 (8,9)YesNoYesYesYesYes
1989 (13)NoNoYesNAYesYes
2000 (14)NoNoYesNoYesNA
1991 (15)NoNoNoNoNANA
1988 (16)NoNoYesNoYesYes