Table 3—

Type of congenital anomalies detected among the offspring of women with prepregnancy diabetes*

Year (reference)No. of congenital anomalies according to anatomical location
Central nervous system or caudal dysgenesisCardiacGastrointestinalMusculoskeletalUrogenitalOrofacial cleftOther
1987 (6)4220100
1988 (7)3914003
1989 (8,9)3313810
1989 (13)5204103
2000 (14)51345400
1991 (15)2730100
1988 (16)41000211
Total number (% of all anomalies)26 (20.8)46 (36.8)11 (8.8)16 (12.8)17 (13.6)2 (1.6)7 (5.6)
  • *

    * More than one anomaly may be present in an affected offspring.