Table 1—

Blood glucose parameters (combined periods by treatment) and correlation of symptoms with BGRATE

Lispro mixtureGlargineTreatment comparison P value*
Blood glucose (mmol/l)
    n2828
    Before breakfast8.5 ± 1.57.8 ± 2.00.056
    After breakfast11.0 ± 1.910.9 ± 2.10.642
    Before dinner9.8 ± 2.510.7 ± 3.00.076
    After dinner11.0 ± 2.312.3 ± 2.90.001
Correlation coefficients of symptom clusters and BGRATE (rise from pre- to postmeal blood glucose)
    Depressive (sad/blue, not care/apathetic, and slowed down/sleepy)0.45§; 0.56§0.39; 0.53§
    Anxious (restless/jittery, nervous/anxious, and irritable/frustrated)0.43; 0.49§0.41; 0.51§
    Cognitive (difficulty concentrating, slowed thinking/foggy, uncoordinated, and difficulty speaking)0.48§; 0.55§0.47§; 0.54§
    Energetic (alert/crisp/awake, energetic/lively, and enjoying myself)0.11; −0.160.13; −0.6
  • Data are means ± SD or average scores: breakfast; supper.

  • * Using Koch Model.

  • Scores were recoded to present % of time symptoms occurred.

  • P < 0.05;

  • § P < 0.01.