Table 3

Crude and adjusted HRs of Cox proportional hazards regressions stratified on the matched pairs and 95% CIs for death during the follow-up period for the study cohort

CohortCrude HR 
(95% CI)Adjusted HR
 (95% CI)
HCE (number of episodes)
 ≥2 (166/355)3.880 (2.926–5.144)*4.525 (3.364–6.086)*
 1 (1,468/4,162)2.713 (2.489–2.957)*2.848 (2.599–3.119)*
 None (1,692/9,034)1.0001.000
Age (years)
 65–741.0001.000
 75–841.827 (1.595–2.093)*1.675 (1.407–1.992)*
 ≥853.092 (2.506–3.816)*2.675 (1.986–3.603)*
Sex
 Male1.152 (1.026–1.294)*1.166 (1.019–1.335)*
 Female1.0001.000
Comorbidity
 HTN0.853 (0.752–0.968)*0.898 (0.757–1.065)
 Renal disease1.801 (1.447–2.241)*1.931 (1.497–2.491)*
 CAD1.031 (0.901–1.179)1.083 (0.922–1.273)
 Stroke1.313 (1.147–1.503)*1.474 (1.257–1.729)*
 Cancer2.316 (1.938–2.767)*3.079 (2.501–3.79)*
 COPD1.437 (1.258–1.642)*1.489 (1.271–1.745)*
 CHF2.058 (1.682–2.518)*2.155 (1.668–2.783)*
 Liver disease0.960 (0.805–1.146)1.115 (0.898–1.384)
Monthly income (USD)
 <5011.0001.000
 501–7910.788 (0.693–0.895)*0.853 (0.719–1.012)
 >7910.453 (0.291–0.705)*0.587 (0.342–1.007)
  • HCE, age, sex, HTN, renal disease, CAD, stroke, cancer, COPD, CHF, liver disease, and monthly income were included in Cox proportional hazards regressions. USD calculated as 1 USD = 31.6 New Taiwan dollars.

  • *P < 0.05.