Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of patients

NormoalbuminuricAlbuminuricPMicroalbuminuricMacroalbuminuric
n15743638
AER (mg/24 h)20.7 ± 6.2712 ± 8760.003123.7 ± 78.71,270 ± 922*
Serum creatinine (μmol/l)122 ± 27160 ± 710.04135 ± 44183 ± 84*
% Serum creatinine <120 μmol/l71330.00635*30*
Isotopic GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)47.5 ± 19.945.2 ± 31.40.7951.8 ± 27.439.0 ± 33.6
MDRD e-GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)45.6 ± 8.940.4 ± 13.70.1743.8 ± 12.237.2 ± 14.5
Correlation between MDRD e-GFR and isotopic GFRr = 0.69, P < 0.005r = 0.45, P < 0.001r = 0.53, P < 0.001r = 0.34, P < 0.05
% MDRD estimations within
    Isotopic GFR ± 10%26240.842226
    Isotopic GFR ± 30%73600.566160
    Isotopic GFR ± 50%86790.728376
Sex (% female)66400.0585229*
Diabetes type (% type 2)80750.487376
Age (years)68 ± 964 ± 120.1765 ± 1162 ± 13
Diabetes duration (years)14 ± 519 ± 110.0619 ± 1219 ± 10
BMI (kg/m2)27.0 ± 4.526.9 ± 4.30.8927.1 ± 4.426.7 ± 4.3
A1C (%)9.0 ± 1.38.5 ± 1.60.318.6 ± 1.38.5 ± 2.0
Cholesterol (g/l)2.37 ± 0.672.10 ± 0.480.072.03 ± 0.382.16 ± 0.56
LDL cholesterol (g/l)1.26 ± 0.461.19 ± 0.400.541.14 ± 0.321.25 ± 0.47
HDL cholesterol (g/l)0.64 ± 0.280.52 ± 0.170.040.56 ± 0.190.49 ± 0.15*
Triglycerides (g/l)1.91 ± 1.861.76 ± 1.090.671.56 ± 0.091.96 ± 1.23
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)143 ± 16147 ± 190.47145 ± 19149 ± 19
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)79 ± 881 ± 100.5679 ± 983 ± 10
Number of antihypertensive drugs2.5 ± 1.82.4 ± 1.20.682.2 ± 1.02.5 ± 1.3
% on ACE inhibitors40590.256950
% on angiotensin 2 receptor inhibitors20160.711617
Hemoglobin level (g/dl)13.3 ± 1.412.3 ± 1.40.0112.6 ± 1.312.0 ± 1.4*
% With previous cardiac event13380.0583146
% With diabetic retinopathy26660.0161*71*
% Cigarette smoking20520.0544163*
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

  • * Means P < 0.05 vs. the normoalbuminuric group;

  • means P < 0.05 vs. the microalbuminuric group. The medium column gives the significance for the difference between the normoalbuminuric group and the other patients (n = 74).