Table 3

Fasting and 3:00 a.m. BG levels in patients with bedtime BG levels between 7.8 and 19.4 mmol/L (140–350 mg/dL)

3 a.m.FastingBedtime
Supplement groupNo-supplement groupP valueSupplement groupNo-supplement groupP valueSupplement groupNo-supplement groupP value
BG day 1 (mmol/L [mg/dL])N/AN/AN/AN/A11.3 ± 2.1
[203 ± 38]11.0 ± 2.4
[199 ± 43]0.31
n = 55n = 65
BG day 2 (mmol/L [mg/dL])8.8 ± 2.8
[159 ± 51]10.4 ± 3.8
[188 ± 68]0.069.7 ± 2.8
[174 ± 50]9.9 ± 2.9
[178 ± 52]0.5910.8 ± 2.3
[194 ± 41]10.8 ± 2.6
[195 ± 46]0.84
n = 32n = 46n = 55n = 65n = 61n = 61
BG day 3 (mmol/L [mg/dL])9.8 ± 3.7
[176 ± 66]9.6 ± 3.1
[173 ± 55]0.989.6 ± 3.2
[173 ± 57]9.0 ± 2.7
[162 ± 49]0.5810.6 ± 2.6
[191 ± 47]11.0 ± 2.4
[199 ± 43]0.19
n = 39n = 36n = 60n = 60n = 46n = 47
BG day 4 (mmol/L [mg/dL])9.1 ± 2.7
[164 ± 49]9.4 ± 3.1
[169 ± 56]0.578.6 ± 2.7
[155 ± 49]9.4 ± 3.6
[170 ± 64]0.3310.2 ± 1.8
[184 ± 33]10.9 ± 2.6
[196 ± 47]0.48
n = 30n = 23n = 45n = 47n = 35n = 30
BG day 5 (mmol/L [mg/dL])9.0 ± 2.9
[163 ± 53]11.0 ± 4.6
[198 ± 83]0.138.8 ± 2.4
[159 ± 43]8.9 ± 3.6
[161 ± 65]1.0010.6 ± 1.4
[191 ± 26]10.9 ± 2.3
[197 ± 41]0.94
n = 23n = 16n = 35n = 30n = 31n = 28
BG day 6 (mmol/L [mg/dL])8.8 ± 2.8
[158 ± 51]8.0 ± 2.4
[144 ± 43]0.678.3 ± 2.9
[149 ± 52]7.5 ± 2.3
[135 ± 41]0.5310.4 ± 2.3
[187 ± 42]11.0 ± 2.3
[198 ± 41]0.27
n = 16n = 17n = 30n = 28n = 21n = 24
BG day 7 (mmol/L [mg/dL])7.5 ± 1.7
[135 ± 30]7.9 ± 2.6
[143 ± 46]0.848.2 ± 2.1
[147 ± 37]8.0 ± 2.4
[144 ± 43]0.529.7 ± 1.5
[175 ± 27]10.0 ± 1.6
[180 ± 28]0.53
n = 8n = 14n = 20n = 24n = 19n = 20
BG day 8 (mmol/L [mg/dL])7.5 ± 3.1
[135 ± 55]8.5 ± 1.9
[153 ± 34]0.127.7 ± 2.8
[138 ± 50]8.2 ± 1.9
[147 ± 35]0.229.7 ± 1.6
[175 ± 29]11.0 ± 2.7
[198 ± 49]0.19
n = 6n = 16n = 18n = 19n = 16n = 12
BG day 9 (mmol/L [mg/dL])8.5 ± 2.1
[154 ± 38]8.3 ± 2.7
[150 ± 48]0.907.5 ± 2.2
[136 ± 39]7.7 ± 3.6
[138 ± 65]0.5410.8 ± 2.3
[194 ± 42]11.2 ± 3.1
[202 ± 56]0.95
n = 8n = 6n = 16n = 11n = 12n = 10
BG day 10 (mmol/L [mg/dL])9.3 ± 3.2
[168 ± 58]7.4 ± 1.2
[133 ± 22]0.308.8 ± 3.1
[159 ± 55]7.2 ± 3.1
[129 ± 55]0.159.2 ± 2.1
[166 ± 38]12.0 ± 3.6
[217 ± 65]0.05
n = 8n = 5n = 11n = 9n = 6n = 6
Average BG (mmol/L [mg/dL])8.9 ± 2.4
[160 ± 44]9.3 ± 2.8
[168 ± 50]0.198.9 ± 2.4
[160 ± 43]8.8 ± 2.4
[159 ± 44]0.9210.7 ± 1.9
[192 ± 34]10.8 ± 1.7
[195 ± 31]0.41
n = 170n = 179n = 290n = 292n = 302n = 303
  • Data are mean ± SD. The 3 a.m. and fasting BG levels reflect those after receiving a bedtime supplement in response to bedtime BG levels the previous day of the study. N/A, not applicable.