Table 1—

Distribution of perception of risk or chance for future diabetes and association with participant characteristics

TotalAlmost no chanceSlight chanceModerate chanceHigh chance
n21716768835
Age (years)35.7 ± 5.434.5 ± 5.736.4 ± 5.535.7 ± 5.134.9 ± 5.6
Race
    Non-Hispanic white7169687174
    Asian/Pacific Islander131316153
    African American76489
    Other101312615
Education
    Less than high school or high school725389
    Some college2919252644
    College graduate or more6456726647
Annual household income
    <$15,000 per year40550
    $15,000 to <$40,000122171221
    $40,000 to <$75,00003236233539
    ≥$75,0005243644839
Family history of diabetes*5231436650
History of dyslipidemia236252423
History of hypertension outside of pregnancy909136
Current cigarette smoking11671514
Duration of breast-feeding without formula
    0 to <3 months5344466347
    3 months to <1 year3325452335
    ≥1 year143191418
Current BMI (kg/m2)30.1 ± 7.724.7 ± 3.827.3 ± 6.532.4 ± 8.132.6 ± 7.2
Time since delivery (months)27.0 ± 17.837.4 ± 19.228.1 ± 19.626.2 ± 16.422.5 ± 15.4
Prenatal provider type
    Obstetrician/gynecologist9088899386
    Family practitioner14312099
    Endocrinologist4225434151
    Midwife601129
    Dietician6056556071
    Other50739
Insulin use during pregnancy4219384457
Personal control (possible range 1–4)3.24 ± 0.493.42 ± 0.553.31 ± 0.463.20 ± 0.433.13 ± 0.61
Optimistic bias (possible range 1–4)2.12 ± 0.502.66 ± 0.682.24 ± 0.431.99 ± 0.411.91 ± 0.54
Knowledge of diabetes risk factors (possible range 1–11)6.9 ± 1.86.6 ± 2.26.9 ± 1.67.0 ± 1.67.0 ± 1.6
Benefits/barriers (possible range 1–4)3.43 ± 0.463.63 ± 0.573.46 ± 0.463.39 ± 0.403.40 ± 0.52
  • Data are means ± SD or percent. Column headings indicate responses to the question, “What do you think your risk or chance is of getting diabetes over the next 10 years?” Bold type indicates associations at P ≤ 0.05.

  • *

    * First-degree relative with diabetes.

  • Women could see multiple provider types during pregnancy, so percentages do not sum to 100.