Table 2—

Prevalence and risk of childhood obesity at age 5–7 years, stratified by mother's glycemia while pregnant

Maternal glucose scale with screening for GDM by GCT and OGTTnChild's weight >85th percentile*
Child's weight >95th percentile*
Prevalence (%)OR (95% CI)§Prevalence (%)OR (95% CI)§
Women with normal GCT (quartiles)7,609
    43–94 mg/dl1,98721.6Reference10.3Reference
    95–108 mg/dl1,95323.61.09 (0.92–1.29)12.01.15 (0.92–1.44)
    109–121 mg/dl1,80123.30.99 (0.83–1.17)13.41.20 (0.96–1.50)
    122–140 mg/dl1,86825.51.22 (1.03–1.45)13.21.28 (1.02–1.60)
Women with GCT/OGTT9,439
    Normal GCT7,60923.5Reference12.2Reference
    +GCT, normal OGTT99923.30.98 (0.81–1.17)12.80.97 (0.77–1.24)
    +GCT, 1 abnormal C&C or NDDG28826.71.37 (1.01–1.84)15.31.30 (0.89–1.90)
    +GCT, GDM-C&C17334.71.89 (1.30–2.76)20.21.82 (1.15–2.88)
    +GCT,GDM-NDDG; treated37027.81.29 (0.85–1.97)17.31.38 (0.84–2.27)
  • *

    * Sex-specific weight-for-age percentiles based on U.S. norms (1963–1994 standard) (25).

  • Ptrend < 0.0001 in both stratified GCT and GCT/OGTT group analyses.

  • Adjusted for maternal age, parity, weight gain during pregnancy, ethnicity, macrosomia at birth (>4,000 g), and sex of child; significant values are bolded.

  • §

    § For multivariate analyses only, the final sample sizes were 6,071 total women with normal GCT and 7,428 women with GCT/OGTT, because of missing self-reported weight gain and parity data; the smallest subgroup for the multivariate analysis remained women with +GCT; GDM-C&C (n = 124). +GCT, 1-h 50-g glucose challenge test >7.7 mmol/l (140 mg/dl); OGTT, 100-g glucose tolerance test; GDM, ≥2 values exceed the threshold by Carpenter and Coustan (C&C) or NDDG criteria (22).