Table 1

Characteristics and crude medical spending of U.S. adults ≥18 years of age with and without diagnosed diabetes between 1987 and 2011

Year 1987Year 2000–2001Year 2010–2011
Without diabetesWith diabetesWithout diabetesWith diabetesWithout diabetesWith diabetes
Sample, n20,9581,50238,2222,87543,7474,787
Mean age, years42.958.9*44.359.8*45.260.3*
Female, %52.357.7*52.151.451.949.9
White, %80.576.3*73.666.7*67.662.6*
Black, %9.915.3*11.017.0*11.016.1*
Hispanic, %6.56.011.112.5§14.514.5
Other race/ethnicity, %3.12.44.33.86.96.8
Current smoker, %28.222.1*21.216.9*16.814.5*
Hypertension, %21.962.3*20.062.5*28.277.5*
Had CVD, %6.231.7*9.231.6*11.933.1*
Had stroke, %1.610.7*2.09.4*2.712.1*
Covered by Medicare, %15.346.4*16.448.0*17.346.1*
Covered by Medicaid, %5.011.1*7.514.2*10.316.5*
Covered by private insurance, %77.772.8*74.562.4*66.955.2*
Had no insurance, %13.87.1*13.06.8*15.68.8*
Crude total spending, $ (in 2012 dollars)2,4477,229*3,74911,226*4,75411,880*
  • The sources of data are the 1987 NMES, and the 2000–2001 and 2010–2011 data from the MEPS. Hypertension is defined as self-reported diagnosis and/or use of antihypertensive medications. CVDs are identified based on self-reports of coronary heart disease, angina or angina pectoris, acute heart attack or myocardial infarction, and other unspecified heart diseases. Stroke is identified based on self-reports of stroke and transient ischemic attack.

  • *Significantly different when comparing people with diabetes with people without diabetes at P < 0.01 level.

  • †Significantly different compared with previous time point at P < 0.01 level.

  • ‡Significantly different compared with previous time point at P < 0.05 level.

  • §Significantly different when comparing people with diabetes with people without diabetes at P < 0.05 level.