Table 1

Characteristics of community-dwelling older veterans with diabetes and comorbid dementia by level of glycemic control

Patient characteristicsAll patients
(n = 15,880)Tightly controlled
(n = 8,276)Moderately controlled
(n = 5,669)Poorly controlled
(n = 1,131)Not monitored (n = 804)
Male sex15,643 (99)8,157 (99)5,581 (98)1,115 (99)790 (98)
Race/ethnicity
 Hispanic1,242 (8)566 (7)475 (8)137 (12)64 (8)
 White, non-Hispanic12,629 (80)6,742 (81)4,489 (79)776 (69)622 (77)
 Black, non-Hispanic1,618 (10)781 (9)573 (10)177 (16)87 (11)
 Other391 (2)187 (2)132 (2)41 (4)31 (4)
Age
 65–74 years3,857 (24)1,882 (23)1,442 (25)367 (32)166 (21)
 75–84 years8,745 (55)4,657 (56)3,058 (54)586 (52)444 (55)
 ≥85 years3,278 (21)1,737 (21)1,169 (21)178 (16)194 (24)
Has medication copay9,515 (60)4,990 (60)3,431 (61)638 (56)456 (57)
Comorbidities
 Congestive heart failure2,860 (18)1,416 (17)1,080 (19)226 (20)138 (17)
 Heart valve disease1,168 (7)648 (8)394 (7)69 (6)57 (7)
 Peripheral vascular disease2,624 (17)1,412 (17)943 (17)166 (15)103 (13)
 Hypertension12,815 (81)6,727 (81)4,646 (82)945 (84)497 (62)
 Chronic lung disease2,979 (19)1,600 (19)1,032 (18)212 (19)135 (17)
 Hypothyroidism1,628 (10)884 (11)588 (10)109 (10)47 (6)
 Renal failure2,511 (16)1,266 (15)941 (17)211 (19)93 (12)
 Solid tumor without metastasis2,073 (13)1,110 (13)755 (13)137 (12)71 (9)
 Obesity1,080 (7)517 (6)432 (8)102 (9)29 (4)
 Weight loss436 (3)260 (3)129 (2)20 (2)27 (3)
 Fluid and electrolyte disorder2,016 (13)1,043 (13)722 (13)166 (15)85 (11)
 Deficiency anemia3,308 (21)1,821 (22)1,168 (21)203 (18)116 (14)
 Psychoses2,065 (13)1,105 (13)709 (13)166 (15)85 (11)
 Depression2,463 (16)1,317 (16)858 (15)189 (17)99 (12)
Inpatient stay in FY20082,416 (15)1,246 (15)837 (15)243 (21)90 (11)
VA documentation of dementia11,213 (71)5,869 (71)3,958 (70)818 (72)578 (72)
Last HbA1c value in baseline  year (FY2008)§
 HbA1c (%)6.8 (6.3–7.6)6.3 (6.0–6.6)7.5 (7.2–8.0)9.8 (9.3–10.7)N/A
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)51 (45–60)45 (42–49)58 (55–64)84 (78–93)N/A
Medication use in follow-up period (first 120 days of FY2009)
Medication regimen
 Noninsulin monotherapy7,298 (46)4,942 (60)1,756 (31)156 (14)444 (55)
 Noninsulin multitherapy3,081 (19)1,438 (17)1,337 (24)180 (16)126 (16)
 Insulin alone3,308 (21)1,237 (15)1,502 (27)421 (37)148 (18)
 Insulin plus other agent2,193 (14)659 (8)1,074 (19)374 (33)86 (11)
Medication class#
 Insulin5,501 (35)1,896 (23)2,576 (45)795 (70)234 (29)
 Sulfonylurea8,927 (56)4,690 (57)3,204 (57)548 (49)485 (60)
 Metformin6,487 (41)3,593 (43)2,238 (39)382 (34)274 (34)
 TZDs826 (5.2)339 (4)375 (7)74 (7)38 (5)
 α-Glucosidase inhibitors233 (1)81 (1)116 (2)28 (3)8 (1)
Use of medications with high  hypoglycemic risk
 No insulin/no sulfonylurea2,842 (18)2,063 (25)598 (11)42 (4)139 (17)
 No insulin/yes sulfonylurea7,537 (47)4,317 (52)2,495 (44)294 (26)431 (54)
 Yes insulin/no sulfonylurea4,111 (26)1,523 (18)1,867 (33)541 (48)180 (22)
 Yes insulin/yes sulfonylurea1,390 (9)373 (5)709 (13)254 (22)54 (7)
  • Data are n (%) or median (interquartile range). Tightly controlled, HbA1c <7% (53 mmol/mol); moderately controlled, HbA1c 7 to <9% (53 to <75 mmol/mol); poorly controlled, HbA1c ≥9% (≥75 mmol/mol); not monitored, no evidence of having received any FY2008 HbA1c tests in VA or Medicare records. N/A, not applicable.

  • §Presented for the 15,076 patients with HbA1c values in FY2008.

  • #Data not shown for use of meglitinides, DPP-4 inhibitors, amylin analogs, and GLP-1 agonists; <1% of the total sample used these agents.