Table 3—

Abnormal glucose tolerance at follow-up in women with GDM and DRAs

AuthorFollow-upICAsIAAsGADAsIA-2AsSeveral DRAs
Steel et al. (17)1 yearPredictive of type 1 diabetes
Ginsberg-Fellner et al. (20)YearsPredictive of type 1 diabetes
Stowers et al. (19)Up to 22 yearsNot predictive of the final state of glucose tolerance
Catalano et al. (21)Up to 4 yearsPredictive of IGT
Stangerberg et al. (23)2–4 monthsNot predictive of abnormal OGTT*
Mauricio et al. (24)MonthsPredictive of diabetes
Damm et al. (26)Up to 11 yearsPredictive of type 1 diabetes
Beischer et al. (51)YearsGADAs at follow-up associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Petersen et al. (52)Up to 11 yearsPredictive of type 1 diabetesPredictive of type 1 diabetesDRA positivity predictive of type 1 diabetes
Fuchtenbusch et al. (29)Up to 5 yearsPredictive of type 1 diabetes*Predictive of type 1 diabetes*Not predictive of type 1 diabetes*Risk of type 1 diabetes increases with the number of DRAs*
Panczel et al. (31)Up to 14 yearsPredictive of type 1 diabetes
Kousta et al. (55)Up to 45 monthsGADAs at follow-up not associated with different FBG or HOMA estimations of insulin secretion and sensitivity
Weng et al. (56)1 yearNo association with diabetes/IGT
Lapolla et al. (34)5 yearsDRA positivity, borderline association to type 1 diabetes
Albareda et al. (35)Up to 11 yearsDRA positivity not predictive of diabetes, type 1 diabetes, or type 2 diabetes*
Järvelä et al. (37)Up to 7 yearsPredictive of type 1 diabetes*Predictive of type 1 diabetes*Not predictive of type 1 diabetes*Number of DRAs predictive of type 1 diabetes*
Löbnner et al. (83)Up to 11 yearsGAD and/or IA-2 positivity predictive of diabetes*
  • For groups with several articles on the subject, only articles providing new information on the predictive ability of DRAs are included.

  • *

    * Adjusted for other predictors. FBG, fasting blood glucose; HOMA, homeostasis model assessment; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.