Table 1

Baseline age-standardized characteristics of women without type 2 diabetes across racial/ethnic groups in the NHS and NHS II*

Racial and ethnic groups
WhiteAsianHispanicBlack
N156,0302,0262,0532,307
Age (years)40.4 ± 7.639.0 ± 6.838.6 ± 6.940.5 ± 7.0
BMI (kg/m2)24.4 ± 4.822.6 ± 3.5#24.8 ± 4.7#26.5 ± 5.5#
Family history of diabetes (%)31.040.2#43.2#44.8#
Physical activity (MET h/week)17.1 ± 24.117.4 ± 27.119.7 ± 30.8#16.1 ± 24.8#
Current smoker (%)19.08.1#11.4#18.1
Hypertension (%)9.57.7#7.5#20.5#
Hypercholesterolemia (%)9.913.8#13.5#14.2#
Postmenopausal (%)21.915.6#17.1#20.8#
Alcohol intake (g/day)4.6 ± 8.41.6 ± 5.5#3.6 ± 7.5#2.9 ± 6.7#
GI52.8 ± 4.055.2 ± 4.3#53.0 ± 4.0#53.8 ± 4.5#
Cereal fiber (g/day)4.3 ± 2.94.0 ± 2.44.6 ± 3.1#3.6 ± 2.6#
Polyunsaturated fat (% energy)5.5 ± 1.55.2 ± 1.4#5.3 ± 1.4#5.4 ± 1.5#
Saturated fat (% energy)13.2 ± 3.711.2 ± 3.7#12.1 ± 3.7#12.0 ± 3.5#
P:S 0.45 ± 0.170.52 ± 0.21#0.48 ± 0.18#0.49 ± 0.20#
Trans fat (% energy)1.9 ± 0.71.6 ± 0.7#1.7 ± 0.7#1.8 ± 0.7#
SSB intake (servings/day)0.39 ± 0.750.52 ± 0.79#0.45 ± 0.85#0.68 ± 0.99#
Coffee intake (cups/day)1.9 ± 1.81.3 ± 1.5#1.5 ± 1.5#1.1 ± 1.4#
Nut intake (servings/day)0.10 ± 0.220.12 ± 0.24#0.09 ± 0.19#0.13 ± 0.28#
Red and processed meat intake (servings/day)1.2 ± 0.91.2 ± 1.01.1 ± 0.9#1.2 ± 1.0
Total energy intake (kcal/day)1,690 ± 5341,733 ± 602#1,707 ± 5851,676 ± 604#
Dietary diabetes risk reduction score20.3 ± 4.019.8 ± 3.8#20.5 ± 4.019.3 ± 4.1#
  • *Values are standardized to the age distribution of the study population and represent means ± SD except where % are shown.

  • †Includes non-Hispanic women with southern European/Mediterranean ancestry, Scandinavian ancestry, and other Caucasian ancestry.

  • ‡Value is not age adjusted.

  • ¶Sum of quartile values (1–4) for intakes of cereal fiber, P:S, coffee, and nuts (ascending order) and GI, trans fat, SSBs, and red and processed meat (descending order); higher score indicates a healthier overall diet.

  • #P < 0.05 compared with whites.