Outcome, method, and model* | β† | SE (β) | β_{STD}† | P | Sample size | Coefficient of determination | Concordance index | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
M1 | M2 | M3 | M1 | M2 | M3 | M1 | M2 | M3 | |||||||||||
Nephropathy | |||||||||||||||||||
Logistic | 0.72 | 0.25 | 0.21 | <0.01 | 987 | 711 | 690 | 0.24 | 0.08 | 0.32 | 0.80 | 0.68 | 0.84 | ||||||
sE-Selectin (ng/ml)** | |||||||||||||||||||
sVCAM-1 (ng/ml)** | −0.26 | 0.26 | -0.07 | 0.31 | |||||||||||||||
sICAM-1 (ng/ml)** | −0.40 | 0.36 | -0.08 | 0.26 | |||||||||||||||
Internal IMT (year 6) | |||||||||||||||||||
Linear | |||||||||||||||||||
Fibrinogen (mg/dl) | 0.09 | 0.03 | 0.10 | <0.01 | 897 | 825 | 775 | 0.43 | 0.02 | 0.41 | — | — | — | ||||||
Common IMT (year 6) | |||||||||||||||||||
Linear | |||||||||||||||||||
PAI-1 Activity (IU/ml)** | 0.01 | 0.00 | 0.06 | 0.05 | 927 | 823 | 791 | 0.37 | 0.02 | 0.37 | — | — | — | ||||||
tPA Activity (IU/ml)** | 0.02 | 0.01 | 0.09 | <0.01 | |||||||||||||||
Linear | |||||||||||||||||||
Fibrinogen | 0.02 | 0.01 | 0.08 | <0.01 | 927 | 834 | 800 | 0.37 | 0.02 | 0.38 | — | — | — |
↵* Estimates are adjusted for age (years), treatment group (reference: standard treatment), duration of type 1 diabetes (years), A1C (percentage), sex (reference: male), smoking status (reference: smoker), systolic blood pressure (reference: millimeters of mercury), natural waist-to-hip ratio, HDL cholesterol (milligrams per deciliter), and total cholesterol (milligrams per deciliter). IMT outcomes at year 6 are also adjusted for corresponding IMT readings at year 1.
↵† The reported values are the change in the log odds for a 1-unit change (unstandardized β values) or a 1 SD change (standardized β values) in the biological parameter (for logistic regression models) or the change in IMT for either a 1-unit change (unstandardized) or 1 SD change (standardized) for linear regression models. Odds ratios for the same change can be obtained by exponentiating the estimated β values. For example, a 1 SD change in the natural logarithm of PAI-1 activity (International Units per milliliter) increases the odds of nephropathy by 1.0602 (P = 0.4013).
‡Only applicable to the logistic model.
§Nagelkerke's pseudo-R^{2} is reported for the logistic model and the adjusted R^{2} for the linear regression models. Regression model 1: composed of conventional risk factors: age (years), treatment group (reference: standard treatment), duration of diabetes (years), A1C (percentage), sex (reference: male), smoking status (reference: smoker), systolic blood pressure (reference: millimeters of mercury), natural waist-to-hip ratio, HDL cholesterol (milligrams per deciliter), and total cholesterol (milligrams per deciliter). IMT outcomes at year 6 are also adjusted for corresponding IMT readings at year 1. This model is denoted as M1 for sample size, coefficient of determination, and concordance index. Regression model 2: composed of only the specified biomarkers. This model is denoted as M2 for sample size, coefficient of determination, and concordance index. Regression model 3 (M3): models 1 and 2 combined.
↵** Natural log transformed.