Table 3—

Final models of multivariate logistic and linear regression analysis

Outcome, method, and model*βSE (β)βSTDPSample size
Coefficient of determination
Concordance index
M1M2M3M1M2M3M1M2M3
Nephropathy
    Logistic0.720.250.21<0.019877116900.240.080.320.800.680.84
        sE-Selectin (ng/ml)**
        sVCAM-1 (ng/ml)**−0.260.26-0.070.31
        sICAM-1 (ng/ml)**−0.400.36-0.080.26
Internal IMT (year 6)
    Linear
        Fibrinogen (mg/dl)0.090.030.10<0.018978257750.430.020.41
Common IMT (year 6)
    Linear
        PAI-1 Activity (IU/ml)**0.010.000.060.059278237910.370.020.37
        tPA Activity (IU/ml)**0.020.010.09<0.01
    Linear
        Fibrinogen0.020.010.08<0.019278348000.370.020.38
  • * Estimates are adjusted for age (years), treatment group (reference: standard treatment), duration of type 1 diabetes (years), A1C (percentage), sex (reference: male), smoking status (reference: smoker), systolic blood pressure (reference: millimeters of mercury), natural waist-to-hip ratio, HDL cholesterol (milligrams per deciliter), and total cholesterol (milligrams per deciliter). IMT outcomes at year 6 are also adjusted for corresponding IMT readings at year 1.

  • The reported values are the change in the log odds for a 1-unit change (unstandardized β values) or a 1 SD change (standardized β values) in the biological parameter (for logistic regression models) or the change in IMT for either a 1-unit change (unstandardized) or 1 SD change (standardized) for linear regression models. Odds ratios for the same change can be obtained by exponentiating the estimated β values. For example, a 1 SD change in the natural logarithm of PAI-1 activity (International Units per milliliter) increases the odds of nephropathy by 1.0602 (P = 0.4013).

  • ‡Only applicable to the logistic model.

  • §Nagelkerke's pseudo-R2 is reported for the logistic model and the adjusted R2 for the linear regression models. Regression model 1: composed of conventional risk factors: age (years), treatment group (reference: standard treatment), duration of diabetes (years), A1C (percentage), sex (reference: male), smoking status (reference: smoker), systolic blood pressure (reference: millimeters of mercury), natural waist-to-hip ratio, HDL cholesterol (milligrams per deciliter), and total cholesterol (milligrams per deciliter). IMT outcomes at year 6 are also adjusted for corresponding IMT readings at year 1. This model is denoted as M1 for sample size, coefficient of determination, and concordance index. Regression model 2: composed of only the specified biomarkers. This model is denoted as M2 for sample size, coefficient of determination, and concordance index. Regression model 3 (M3): models 1 and 2 combined.

  • ** Natural log transformed.