Table 2

Pooled estimates of HRs (95% CI) of type 2 diabetes risk according to quartile of dietary diabetes risk reduction score across racial and ethnic groups in the NHS and NHS II*

Quartile of dietary diabetes risk reduction scorePtrend*HR (95% CI) for 10th–90th percentile range difference
Quartile 1Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4
White
 Median (IQ range)
  NHS15 (14–16)19 (18–19)21 (21–22)25 (24–27)
  NHS II15 (13–16)18 (18–19)21 (21–22)25 (24–27)
 Cases/person-years
  NHS2,511/455,5881,784/422,7391,887/501,3631,140/432,293
  NHS II1,274/370,474943/357,421865/414,736518/367,153
 Age-adjusted model1.000.72 (0.69, 0.76)0.58 (0.55, 0.61)0.40 (0.38, 0.43)<0.0010.36 (0.34, 0.38)
 Multivariate model 1§1.000.79 (0.75, 0.83)0.69 (0.65, 0.72)0.52 (0.49, 0.56)<0.0010.49 (0.46, 0.52)
 Multivariate model 21.000.85 (0.81, 0.89)0.75 (0.71, 0.79)0.61 (0.57, 0.65)<0.0010.57 (0.54, 0.61)
Asian
 Median (IQ range)
  NHS15 (14–16)18 (18–19)21 (20–22)24 (23–26)
  NHS II15 (14–16)18 (17–19)21 (20–22)24 (23–26)
 Cases/person-years
  NHS23/3,18221/3,79324/3,87316/3,379
  NHS II25/6,41423/6,58711/6,56814/5,854
 Age-adjusted model1.000.74 (0.48, 1.12)0.64 (0.40, 1.02)0.57 (0.36, 0.92)0.020.53 (0.31, 0.90)
 Multivariate model 1§1.000.80 (0.52, 1.24)0.67 (0.42, 1.09)0.58 (0.35, 0.95)0.020.53 (0.31, 0.92)
 Multivariate model 21.000.86 (0.55, 1.35)0.70 (0.42, 1.14)0.61 (0.36, 1.02)0.040.56 (0.32, 0.97)
Hispanic
 Median (IQ range)
  NHS15 (14–17)19 (18–20)22 (21–22)25 (24–26)
  NHS II15 (14–16)19 (18–20)22 (21–23)26 (25–27)
 Cases/person-years
  NHS33/3,76525/3,28321/3,7638/3,589
  NHS II31/6,30628/6,55726/6,22921/6,478
 Age-adjusted model1.000.76 (0.52, 1.11)0.62 (0.42, 0.93)0.39 (0.26, 0.60)<0.0010.39 (0.26, 0.60)
 Multivariate model 1§1.000.83 (0.56, 1.23)0.69 (0.46, 1.04)0.45 (0.28, 0.74)<0.0010.45 (0.29, 0.70)
 Multivariate model 21.000.94 (0.62, 1.42)0.77 (0.50, 1.18)0.57 (0.35, 0.93)0.010.55 (0.35, 0.85)
Black
 Median (IQ range)
  NHS15 (14–16)19 (18–19)21 (21–22)25 (24–27)
  NHS II13 (12–15)17 (16–18)20 (19–21)24 (23–25)
 Cases/person-years
  NHS72/6,04931/5,65248/5,28426/5,972
  NHS II27/5,99745/5,72420/5,39838/6,144
 Age-adjusted model1.000.87 (0.63, 1.20)0.82 (0.59, 1.13)0.64 (0.45, 0.90)0.010.62 (0.43, 0.89)
 Multivariate model 1§1.000.91 (0.66, 1.26)0.84 (0.60, 1.17)0.68 (0.48, 0.97)0.040.68 (0.47, 0.98)
 Multivariate model 21.000.85 (0.61, 1.19)0.77 (0.55, 1.08)0.71 (0.49, 1.01)0.070.70 (0.48, 1.03)
Minorities
 Median (IQ range)
  NHS15 (14–16)19 (18–19)21 (21–22)25 (24–26)
  NHS II14 (13–15)18 (17–19)21 (20–22)25 (24–26)
 Cases/person-years
  NHS128/12,99677/12,72993/12,92150/12,939
  NHS II83/18,71796/18,86857/18,19573/18,476
 Age-adjusted model1.000.81 (0.66, 1.00)0.70 (0.56, 0.87)0.54 (0.43, 0.68)<0.0010.53 (0.42, 0.67)
 Multivariate model 1§1.000.90 (0.73, 1.11)0.75 (0.61, 0.93)0.64 (0.51, 0.80)<0.0010.58 (0.46, 0.74)
 Multivariate model 21.000.91 (0.74, 1.13)0.75 (0.60, 0.93)0.65 (0.49, 0.80)<0.0010.61 (0.48, 0.77)
  • IQ, interquartile.

  • *Ptrend was calculated by assigning median values to each quartile and was treated as a continuous variable.

  • †Includes non-Hispanic women with southern European/Mediterranean ancestry, Scandinavian ancestry, and other Caucasian ancestry.

  • §The multivariate model was adjusted for age, family history of diabetes, smoking status, physical activity level, alcohol intake, postmenopausal status and menopausal hormone use, oral contraceptive use (NHS II), and total energy intake.

  • ‡The multivariate model was adjusted for variables in model 1 and BMI.

  • ¶Includes Asian, Hispanic, and black women.