Table 3

Pooled estimates of HRs (95% CI) of type 2 diabetes risk according to intake of individual components of the dietary diabetes risk reduction score for white and minority women in NHS and NHS II*

NHSNHS IIPooled
GI
 White1.29 (1.19, 1.39)1.06 (0.95, 1.18)1.21 (1.13, 1.28)
 Minorities§1.47 (1.02, 2.11)1.24 (0.85, 1.82)1.36 (1.04, 1.77)
Cereal fiber (g/day)
 White0.90 (0.88, 0.92)0.91 (0.89, 0.93)0.90 (0.89, 0.92)
 Minorities0.90 (0.83, 0.98)0.98 (0.92, 1.03)0.95 (0.90, 0.99)
P:S
 White0.87 (0.81, 0.95)1.09 (0.98, 1.21)0.95 (0.89, 1.01)
 Minorities0.97 (0.65, 1.45)0.92 (0.61, 1.37)0.94 (0.71, 1.25)
Trans fat (% energy)
 White1.01 (0.96, 1.06)1.28 (1.18, 1.38)1.08 (1.04, 1.13)
 Minorities1.00 (0.77, 1.30)1.09 (0.84, 1.41)1.04 (0.87, 1.25)
SSBs (servings/day)
 White1.42 (1.28, 1.57)1.15 (1.07, 1.25)1.25 (1.17, 1.33)
 Minorities1.51 (1.01, 2.27)1.01 (0.73, 1.24)1.16 (1.08, 1.25)
Coffee (cups/day)
 White0.92 (0.91, 0.93)0.84 (0.81, 0.86)0.90 (0.89, 0.91)
 Minorities0.91 (0.83, 0.98)0.81 (0.72, 0.92)0.88 (0.82, 0.94)
Nuts (servings/day)
 White0.53 (0.42, 0.67)0.78 (0.48, 1.20)0.57 (0.47, 0.70)
 Minorities0.88 (0.33, 2.33)0.32 (0.07, 1.43)0.65 (0.29, 1.47)
Red and processed  meats (servings/day)
 White1.25 (1.19, 1.32)1.63 (1.49, 1.77)1.34 (1.28, 1.40)
 Minorities1.05 (0.85, 1.28)1.31 (1.02, 1.69)1.14 (1.02, 1.35)
  • *HRs (95% CI) for 10th–90th percentile range of GI and P:S, 1% increase (% calories) in trans fat intake, and an increase of 1 g/day of cereal fiber intake; 1 serving/day of SSBs, nuts, and red and processed meats; and 1 cup/day of coffee.

  • †The multivariate model was adjusted for age, family history of diabetes, smoking status, physical activity level, alcohol intake, postmenopausal status and menopausal hormone use, oral contraceptive use (NHS II), total energy intake, and modified dietary diabetes risk reduction score.

  • ‡Includes non-Hispanic women with southern European/Mediterranean ancestry, Scandinavian ancestry, and other Caucasian ancestry.

  • §Includes Asian, Hispanic, and black women.