Table 1—

Baseline demographic, clinical, and metabolic parameters of study subjects stratified by glucose tolerance status in pregnancy

Demographic and clinical featuresNormal GCT NGTAbnormal GCT NGTGIGTGDMP value
n9316691137
Age (years)34.0 ± 4.433.8 ± 4.234.2 ± 4.234.5 ± 4.30.5917
Weeks of gestation32 (30.5–34)29 (28–30)29 (28–31)29 (28–31)<0.0001
Ethnicity:0.0708
    White74 (79.6)132 (79.5)65 (71.4)98 (71.5)
    Asian7 (7.5)15 (9.0)18 (19.8)15 (11.0)
    Other12 (12.9)19 (11.5)8 (8.8)24 (17.5)
Family history of diabetes39 (41.9)84 (50.6)48 (52.8)81 (59.1)0.0120
Parity:0.7087
    Nulliparous57 (61.3)83 (50.0)51 (56.0)75 (54.7)
    131 (33.3)61 (36.8)27 (29.7)51 (37.2)
    >15 (5.4)22 (13.3)13 (14.3)11 (8.0)
Previous GDM/macrosomic infant0 (0)6 (3.6)11 (12.1)10 (7.3)0.0040
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)23.0 (21.5–26.1)23.5 (21.1–27.5)23.5 (21.8–27.7)25.0 (22.0–30.1)0.0246
Weight gain in pregnancy up to OGTT (kg)12.8 (10.4–16.3)10.0 (7.5–13.6)10.0 (7.3–14.5)9.1 (5.9–12.7)<0.0001
Smoking exposure:0.2750
    Never58 (62.4)114 (68.7)66 (72.5)103 (75.2)
    Remote34 (36.6)51 (30.7)23 (25.3)32 (23.4)
    Current1 (1.1)1 (0.6)2 (2.2)2 (1.5)
Glucose metabolism
    GCT (mmol/l)5.7 (5.2–6.6)8.4 (8.0–9.1)8.5 (7.9–9.0)8.8 (8.2–9.5)<0.0001
    Fasting glucose (mmol/l)4.2 (4.0–4.5)4.4 (4.2–4.6)4.7 (4.3–5.0)4.6 (4.3–5.2)<0.0001
    AUCgluc19.6 ± 2.021.0 ± 2.324.3 ± 1.727.7 ± 2.2<0.0001
    ISOGTT5.4 (3.7–7.3)5.4 (3.6–7.3)3.5 (2.7–5.0)3.1 (2.2–5.0)<0.0001
    Insulinogenic index/HOMA-IR13.9 (9.7–19.6)12.8 (8.6–18.1)8.1 (4.6–10.8)6.2 (3.5–10.3)<0.0001
  • Data are means ± SD, medians (interquartile range), or n (%). P values refer to overall differences across groups as derived from ANOVA for continuous variables (parametric test for normally distributed variables and nonparametric test for skewed variables) or a χ2 test for categorical variables (with the exception of smoking exposure, for which Fisher's exact test [Mehta's extension] was used). Family history of diabetes refers to a history of type 2 diabetes in any extended family member.