Table 1

Characteristics of the study population by adherence status

AdherentNonadherentTotal
Patient factors
 Total patients, n (%)151,010(69.1)67,374(30.9)218,384100%
 Patient exposure to diabetes therapy, n (%)
  New to therapy17,486(11.6)20,067(29.8)37,553(17.2)
  Continuing therapy133,524(88.4)47,307(70.3)180,831(82.8)
 Patient age (years)
  Mean (SD)66.4(13.4)61.6(15.50)64.9(4.8)
  Median67.062.066.0
 Patient age-group (years), n (%)
  20–447,113(4.7)8,793(13.0)15,906(7.3)
  45–6460,711(40.2)30,157(44.8)90,868(41.6)
  65–7441,827(27.7)14,906(22.1)56,733(26.0)
  75+41,359(27.4)13,518(20.1)54,877(25.1)
 Patient sex, n (%)
  Male72,605(48.1)29,922(44.4)102,527(47.0)
  Female78,362(51.9)37,430(55.6)115,792(53.0)
  Missing43(0.0)22(0.0)65(0.0)
 Patient education, n (%)
  Completed high school94,683(62.7)45,081(66.9)139,764(64.0)
  Completed college39,327(26.0)16,052(23.8)55,379(25.4)
  Completed graduate school16,237(10.8)5,866(8.7)22,103(10.1)
  Attended vocational/technical763(0.5)375(0.6)1,138(0.5)
 Patient income, n (%)
  <$30,00041,059(27.2)16,566(24.6)57,625(26.4)
  ≥$30,000 to $59,99960,374(40.0)30,244(44.9)90,598(41.5)
  ≥$60,00049,577(32.8)20,584(30.6)70,161(32.1)
 Patient geographic region, n (%)
  Northeast33,404(22.1)14,747(21.9)48,151(22.0)
  Midwest38,080(25.2)15,497(23.0)53,577(24.5)
  West18,263(12.1)8,359(12.4)26,622(12.2)
  South61,263(40.6)28,771(42.7)90,034(41.2)
 Treated chronic disease conditions, n (%)
  Gastrointestinal38,722(25.3)14,235(22.3)52,957(25.1)
  High cholesterol105,336(71.7)36,470(57.0)141,806(67.2)
  Hypertension123,563(84.1)47,030(73.5)170,593(80.9)
  Obesity259(0.2)234(0.4)493(0.2)
  Peripheral vascular disease4,359(3.0)1,640(2.6)5,999(2.8)
  Renal541(0.4)380(0.6)921(0.4)
  Depression24,826(16.4)10,614(15.8)35,440(16.2)
Prescription factors
 Drug channel, n (%)
  Mail62,957(41.7)22,025(32.7)84,982(38.9)
  Retail88,053(58.3)45,359(67.3)133,492(61.1)
 Pill burden and cost, n (%)
  Total pill burden per day, mean (SD)5.2(3.0)4.1(2.5)4.9(2.9)
  Out of pocket cost ($)/month, mean (SD)44.68(48.69)69.41(74.95)52.31(59.97)
Prescriber factors
 Prescriber specialty, n (%)
  Endocrinologist5,494(3.6)2,681(4.0)8,175(3.7)
  Primary care125,404(83.0)54,003(80.1)158,815(82.2)
  Other specialist20,112(13.3)10,690(15.9)30,802(14.1)
 Prescriber age, n (%)
  Mean (SD)52.9(9.5)52.4(9.5)52.7(9.5)
  Median55.055.055.0
 Prescriber sex, n (%)
  Female30,863(20.4)15,314(22.7)46,177(21.15)
  Male120,147(79.6)52,060(77.3)172,207(78.86)