Table 1—

Metabolic effects of hormonal contraceptive methods and components

Oral estrogenOral progestinIntramuscular and implants of progestinIUD
Glucose toleranceNeutral↑Insulin resistance ↑Glucose tolerance↑Insulin resistance ↑Glucose toleranceNeutral
Lipids↑HDL cholesterol ↓LDL cholesterol↓HDL cholesterol ↓LDL cholesterolVariable on HDL cholesterolNeutral
Blood pressureSlight↑NeutralNeutralNeutral
Coagulation↑ Globulins: dose-dependent↑NeutralNeutralNeutral
  • The net effect of COCs varies depending on the various amounts and components of estrogen and progestin used. See text for details.