Table 2—

Characteristics and comorbidities of hypoglycemia case (n = 2,025) and control (n = 7,278) subjects

ParameterCase subjectsControl subjectsCrude odds ratio (95% CI)Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)*P value
Age (years)
    <50262 (12.9)747 (10.6)
    50–59356 (17.6)1,304 (17.9)
    60–69592 (29.2)2,234 (30.7)
    70–79649 (32.1)2,384 (32.8)
    ≥80166 (8.2)582 (8.0)
Sex
    Male969 (47.9)3,523 (48.4)
    Female1,056 (52.2)3,755 (51.6)
Smoking
    Nonsmoker1,031 (50.9)3,692 (50.7)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
    Current smoker297 (14.7)1,257 (17.3)0.84 (0.72–0.97)0.75 (0.63–0.89)0.001
    Past smoker607 (30.0)1,950 (26.8)1.17 (1.03–1.32)1.04 (0.91–1.20)0.58
    Unknown90 (4.4)379 (5.2)0.78 (0.59–1.02)0.82 (0.59–1.14)0.24
BMI (kg/m2)
    <25.0346 (17.1)1,052 (14.5)1.0 (ref.)1.0 (ref.)
    25.0–29.9712 (35.1)2,527 (34.7)0.87 (0.75–1.01)0.87 (0.73–1.04)0.13
    ≥30.0840 (41.5)3,179 (43.7)0.81 (0.69–0.94)0.68 (0.57–0.82)<0.0001
    Unknown127 (6.3)520 (7.1)0.74 (0.58–0.94)0.78 (0.58–1.05)0.10
Renal failure157 (7.8)339 (4.7)1.76 (1.44–2.15)1.58 (1.25–2.00)<0.001
Diabetic retinopathy41 (2.0)123 (1.7)1.19 (0.82–1.71)1.07 (0.70–1.62)0.77
Diabetic neuropathy57 (2.8)120 (1.7)1.91 (1.35–2.69)1.25 (0.83–1.87)0.29
Ischemic heart disease/congestive
        heart failure654 (32.3)2,132 (29.3)1.21 (1.08–1.36)0.84 (0.72–0.98)0.02
Stroke/transient ischemic attack248 (12.3)706 (9.7)1.36 (1.16–1.59)1.13 (0.93–1.36)0.21
Hypotension69 (3.4)165 (2.3)1.57 (1.16–2.11)1.02 (0.72–1.44)0.91
Hypertension1,056 (52.2)3,772 (51.8)1.06 (0.95–1.17)0.95 (0.82–1.10)0.47
Hyperlipidemia547 (28.4)1,910 (26.2)1.15 (1.02–1.29)1.00 (0.87–1.14)0.94
Depression/suicide ideas545 (26.9)1,468 (20.2)1.46 (1.30–1.65)1.13 (0.95–1.33)0.17
  • Data are n (%), unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Adjusted for all the variables displayed in the table plus for use of oral antidiabetes drugs, insulin, antihypertensive drugs, lipid-lowering agents, diuretics, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, stomach acid–reducing drugs, and analgesics.