Table 3—

Hypoglycemia risk by antidiabetes drug class and by duration of use among case (n = 2,025) and control (n = 7,278) subjects

ExposureCases subjectsControls subjectsCrude odds ratio (95% CI)Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)*P value
Insulin (no use)1,421 (70.2)6,382 (87.7)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
Current 1–4 Rx86 (4.3)87 (1.2)4.54 (3.28–6.26)6.26 (4.35–9.02)<0.0001
Current 5–14 Rx107 (5.3)154 (2.1)2.20 (2.46–4.17)5.46 (4.00–7.45)<0.0001
Current ≥15 Rx325 (16.1)352 (4.8)4.46 (3.76–5.29)7.56 (6.04–9.45)<0.0001
Sulfonylureas (no use)312 (15.4)2,162 (29.7)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
Current 1–4 Rx313 (15.5)358 (4.9)6.85 (5.54–8.47)10.8 (8.48–13.8)<0.0001
Current 5–14 Rx229 (11.3)714 (9.8)2.33 (1.91–2.85)3.31 (2.64–4.14)<0.0001
Current ≥15 Rx579 (28.6)1,758 (24.2)2.48 (2.11–2.91)3.18 (2.64–3.84)<0.0001
Metformin (no use)604 (29.8)2,279 (31.3)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
Current 1–4 Rx150 (7.4)397 (5.5)1.49 (1.20–1.85)2.32 (1.79–3.01)<0.0001
Current 5–14 Rx242 (12.0)877 (12.1)1.12 (0.94–1.33)1.74 (1.42–2.14)<0.0001
Current ≥15 Rx534 (26.4)1,889 (26.0)1.19 (1.03–1.38)1.36 (1.14–1.62)<0.001
Thiazolidinediones (no use)1,827 (90.2)6,743 (92.7)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
Current 1–4 Rx38 (1.9)98 (1.4)1.52 (1.03–2.34)1.67 (1.08–2.59)0.02
Current ≥5 Rx83 (4.1)239 (3.3)1.41 (1.08–1.84)1.44 (1.06–1.96)0.02
Prandial glucose inhibitors (no use)1,982 (97.9)7,154 (98.3)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
Current 1–4 Rx5 (0.3)11 (0.2)1.69 (0.55–5.21)3.01 (0.89–10.1)0.08
Current ≥5 Rx14 (0.7)37 (0.5)1.43 (0.76–2.70)2.36 (1.13–4.92)0.02
Acarbose (no use)1,895 (93.6)6,907 (94.9)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
Current 1–4 Rx6 (0.3)15 (0.2)1.24 (0.47–3.28)0.88 (0.30–2.62)0.82
Current ≥5 Rx24 (1.2)84 (1.2)0.99 (0.62–1.58)0.90 (0.54–1.51)0.70
  • Data are n (%), unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Adjusted for each other, insulin, antihypertensive drugs, lipid-lowering agents, diuretics, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, stomach acid–reducing drugs, and analgesics. Rx, prescription.