Table 1—

Baseline characteristics in subjects included in the primary analysis

Men
Women
ControlVitamin KP valueControlVitamin KP value
n6280109104
Age (years)69.7 ± 6.268.9 ± 5.50.4567.5 ± 5.267.3 ± 5.50.77
BMI (kg/m2)27.0 ± 3.528.2 ± 4.70.1226.8 ± 4.928.1 ± 5.80.07
Overweight/obese (%)*74710.7059720.04
Total body fat (%)36.0 ± 9.837.8 ± 8.80.2938.3 ± 9.236.7 ± 9.80.23
Physical activity scale136 ± 59130 ± 650.61123 ± 56128 ± 550.56
Current smoking (%)830.24380.13
Current alcohol drinking (%)73700.8576700.36
College or greater education (%)58680.2947450.89
Blood pressure medication use (%)34210.1329240.44
Statin use (%)29200.2424241.00
Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%)39.9 ± 15.236.7 ± 15.50.2342.3 ± 17.443.5 ± 16.20.62
Plasma phylloquinone (nmol/l)1.1 ± 21.3 ± 1.60.211.2 ± 1.11.1 ± 1.40.37
Phylloquinone intake (μg/day)168 ± 114176 ± 1180.68180.8 ± 113.6170 ± 96.70.81
Plasma glucose (mg/dl)95.5 ± 8.193.1 ± 90.1092 ± 9.793.9 ± 9.90.15
Plasma insulin (μU/ml)10.5 ± 4.810.6 ± 5.70.9510.1 ± 4.710.6 ± 5.50.78
HOMA-IR2.5 ± 1.22.5 ± 1.50.732.3 ± 1.12.5 ± 1.40.33
Discontinued taking calcium supplementation (%)860.7512110.83
Discontinued taking multivitamin supplements (%)860.75891.00
  • Data are means ± SD or % for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. For statistical analysis, logarithm transformation was performed for plasma insulin, HOMA-IR, plasma phylloquinone, and phylloquinone intakes. Phylloquinone intake included both dietary and supplemental sources of phylloquinone.

  • *

    * Defined as BMI >25 kg/m2.

  • The physical activity scale was calculated on the basis of the questionnaire that captures leisure, household, and occupational activity (14). Higher scores indicate more physically active condition.

  • Discontinued taking calcium and vitamin D supplementation.