Table 2—

Muscle metabolites and enzyme activity

Type 1 diabetic group
Control group
RestExerciseRestExercise
Glycogen (glucosyl units)*
    Pretraining491 ± 50306 ± 37526 ± 53347 ± 60
    Posttraining499 ± 61366 ± 63537 ± 49399 ± 39
Glucose 1-phosphate*
    Pretraining0.1 ± 0.00.8 ± 0.20.1 ± 0.00.9 ± 0.2
    Posttraining0.1 ± 0.00.8 ± 0.20.1 ± 0.00.6 ± 0.1
Glucose*
    Pretraining3.8 ± 0.74.9 ± 0.61.8 ± 0.43.5 ± 0.6
    Posttraining2.9 ± 0.36.2 ± 1.11.3 ± 0.13.2 ± 0.3
Glucose 6-phosphate*
    Pretraining1.5 ± 0.323.3 ± 1.81.4 ± 0.2222.2 ± 2.7
    Posttraining1.5 ± 0.220.1 ± 2.21.2 ± 0.219.4 ± 1.8
Fructose 6-phosphate*
    Pretraining0.2 ± 0.03.5 ± 0.20.2 ± 0.03.2 ± 0.4
    Posttraining0.2 ± 0.03.1 ± 0.30.2 ± 0.03.2 ± 0.4
Pyruvate*§
    Pretraining0.2 ± 0.00.9 ± 0.20.1 ± 0.00.6 ± 0.0
    Posttraining0.1 ± 0.00.4 ± 0.10.2 ± 0.00.6 ± 0.1
Lactate*#**
    Pretraining3.4 ± 0.3114.8 ± 4.34.2 ± 0.788.6 ± 7.0
    Posttraining4.0 ± 0.680.0 ± 7.23.9 ± 0.578.3 ± 4.7
Hexokinase††‡‡
    Pretraining8.9 ± 0.58.5 ± 0.49.0 ± 0.66.6 ± 0.6
    Posttraining12.9 ± 0.712.3 ± 0.49.5 ± 0.67.3 ± 0.6
Pyruvate dehydrogenase a*§§
    Pretraining0.8 ± 0.11.9 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.22.1 ± 0.3
    Posttraining0.6 ± 0.11.7 ± 0.20.5 ± 0.11.7 ± 0.2
  • Data are means ± SE. Type 1 diabetic group, n = 7; Control group, n = 6. Units for muscle metabolites, mmol/kg dm; units for enzyme activity, mmol · min−1 · kg dm−1.

  • *

    * P < 0.001, main effect of time, exercise > rest (except for glycogen, which is rest > exercise);

  • P < 0.01, Type 1 diabetic > Control group;

  • P < 0.05, main effect of training status;

  • §

    § P < 0.05, training status-by-time interaction;

  • P < 0.01, main effect of training status;

  • P = 0.001, training status-by-time interaction;

  • #

    # P < 0.05, time-by-group interaction;

  • **

    ** P < 0.05, training status-by-time-by-group interaction;

  • ††

    †† P < 0.001, time-by-group interaction: T1D group unchanged, CON group reduced with exercise;

  • ‡‡

    ‡‡ P < 0.01, training status-by-group interaction: Type 1 diabetic > Control;

  • §§

    §§ P < 0.05, training status at rest, pre- > posttraining.