Table 1—

Demographic and clinical variables at the time of first cognitive assessment in subjects who did or did not experience a subsequent decline in cognitive function after a median 1.6 years

No cognitive declineCognitive declineP value*
n17233
Age at assessment (years)74.7 ± 4.076.3 ± 4.40.037
Sex (% male)50.039.40.34
Education (% > primary schooling)81.951.50.001
Cognitive impairment, no dementia (%)22.09.40.10
Subjective memory complaints (%)37.137.51.00
MMSE score28 [27–29]26 [25–28]0.001
IQCODE >3.31 (%)24.624.21.00
Duration of diabetes (years)11.1 [8.3–16.1]9.6 [7.9–15.1]0.31
Diabetic treatment, diet only (%)15.724.20.31
Oral hypoglycemic agents (%)55.263.60.45
Insulin (± oral hypoglycemic therapy) (%)29.112.10.052
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)7.9 [6.6–9.4]8.2 [5.6–9.8]0.73
A1C (%)7.0 [6.5–7.9]7.5 [6.3–8.2]0.64
BMI (kg/m2)28.9 ± 4.628.4 ± 4.20.61
Overweight/obese waist-to-hip ratio (%)76.072.70.66
History of severe hypoglycemia (%)6.69.10.71
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)151 ± 24151 ± 200.88
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)76 ± 1778 ± 190.54
Antihypertensive medication (%)84.068.80.049
Treatment with ACEIs or ARBs (%)64.033.30.002
Cholesterol (mmol/l)4.7 ± 0.84.8 ± 1.20.77
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.3 ± 0.41.2 ± 0.40.48
Serum triglycerides (mmol/l)1.5 (0.9–2.5)1.4 (0.8–2.3)0.37
Lipid-lowering medication (%)60.050.00.33
Albumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/mmol)2.7 (0.7–10.9)6.0 (1.0–34.3)0.020
Nephropathy (%)42.962.50.052
Serum creatinine (μmol/l)91 (65–129)86 (63–119)0.40
Peripheral neuropathy (%)27.143.80.09
Peripheral arterial disease (%)35.743.80.43
Coronary heart disease (%)32.430.31.00
Cerebrovascular disease (%)20.124.20.64
Depression (%)13.515.20.78
APOE e4 carriers (%)21.812.10.25
  • Data are mean ± SD, %, median [interquartile range], or geometric range (SD range).

  • *

    * Appropriate bivariate statistic.