Table 2—

Demographic and clinical variables in cognitively normal subjects who did or not experience cognitive decline

No cognitive declineCognitive declineP value*
n13430
Age at assessment (years)74.4 ± 3.976.2 ± 4.50.025
Sex (% male)45.536.70.42
Education (% > primary schooling)84.250.00.001
MMSE score28 [27–29]26 [25–28]0.001
IQCODE >3.31 (%)14.320.00.41
Duration of diabetes (years)10.5 [8.2–15.7]9.6 [8.0–14.5]0.64
Oral hypoglycemic agents (%)54.563.30.42
Insulin (± oral hypoglycemic therapy) (%)27.613.30.16
A1C (%)7.0 [6.5–7.9]7.5 [6.5–8.2]0.35
BMI (kg/m2)28.7 ± 4.828.2 ± 4.20.62
History of severe hypoglycemia (%)4.66.70.65
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)150 ± 24152 ± 200.75
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)75 ± 1778 ± 200.50
Antihypertensive medication (%)84.869.00.060
Treatment with ACEIs or ARBs (%)64.936.70.007
Albumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/mmol)2.8 (0.7–11.2)7.0 (1.3–37.9)0.003
Nephropathy (%)45.165.50.063
Peripheral neuropathy (%)26.541.40.12
Peripheral arterial disease (%)34.644.80.39
Cerebrovascular disease (%)15.223.30.29
Depression (%)11.316.70.54
APOE e4 carriers (%)22.010.00.20
  • Data are mean ± SD, %, median [interquartile range], or geometric range (SD range).

  • *

    * Appropriate bivariate statistic.