Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes by weight change–trajectory pattern

Higher stable weightLower stable weightWeight lossWeight gainP*
n (%)418 (16.2)1,542 (59.9)314 (12.2)300 (11.7)
Age (years)52.9 ± 8.957.7 ± 10.355.9 ± 9.754.4 ± 9.9<0.001
Female sex174 (41.6)876 (56.8)165 (52.6)141 (47.0)<0.001
Weight (kg)129.4 ± 17.789.0 ± 15.0111.0 ± 20.5108.0 ± 20.0<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)43.1 ± 7.032.3 ± 5.238.9 ± 7.237.0 ± 7.0<0.001
BMI category (kg/m2)<0.001
    <250 (0.0)97 (6.3)1 (0.3)7 (2.3)
    25 to <302 (0.5)452 (29.3)19 (6.1)43 (14.3)
    30 to <40147 (35.1)869 (56.4)170 (54.1)157 (52.3)
    ≥40269 (64.4)124 (8.0)124 (39.5)93 (31.0)
Race risk16 (3.8)112 (7.3)12 (3.8)15 (5.0)0.012
Family income <$40,000/year83 (19.9)293 (19.0)47 (15.0)64 (21.3)0.205
Medicaid17 (4.1)68 (4.4)10 (3.2)15 (5.0)0.703
Current smoker61 (14.6)254 (16.5)53 (16.9)65 (21.7)0.084
No. of medications7.5 ± 5.87.7 ± 5.77.9 ± 6.08.3 ± 6.00.241
    Median (IQR)6.5 (3–10)7 (3–11)7 (4–11)7 (4–11.5)
Depression61 (14.6)183 (11.9)45 (14.3)53 (17.7)0.035
Hypertension237 (56.7)704 (45.7)163 (51.9)137 (45.7)<0.001
Dyslipidemia89 (21.3)405 (26.3)73 (23.3)67 (22.3)0.116
CVD (excluding CHF)43 (10.3)183 (11.9)30 (9.6)39 (13.0)0.450
Microvascular disease§40 (9.6)114 (7.4)25 (8.0)22 (7.3)0.517
Asthma/COPD/arthritis126 (30.1)393 (25.5)80 (25.5)89 (29.7)0.153
A1C (year 1)7.2 ± 1.17.1 ± 1.26.7 ± 1.07.3 ± 1.3<0.001
    Median (IQR)6.9 (6.3–7.8)6.8 (6.3–7.6)6.5 (6.0–7.3)6.9 (6.4–8.0)
A1C above goal178 (47.7)591 (43.6)97 (33.9)123 (46.6)<0.001
Systolic blood pressure#140.1 ± 13.6137.6 ± 15.1138.3 ± 13.8137.2 ± 15.7<0.002
    Median (IQR)139 (132–147)136 (127–147)138 (128–147)136 (127–147)
Diastolic blood pressure#85.9 ± 8.182.3 ± 8.083.9 ± 7.984.1 ± 9.2<0.001
    Median (IQR)86 (80–91)82 (77–87)84 (79–89)84 (79–89)
Blood pressure above goal369 (88.3)1211 (78.5)257 (81.9)237 (79.3)<0.001
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • * Comparison across all four groups.

  • Comparison of weight-gain and weight-loss groups significant at P < 0.05.

  • Defined as any of the following: African American/Hispanic/American Indian/Pacific Islander.

  • Combined noncardiovascular diagnoses that may interfere with activity.

  • § Retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy grouped together.

  • ‖A1C means based on 373 subjects (89.2%) in higher-stable, 1,355 (87.9%) in lower-stable, 286 (91.1%) in weight-loss, and 264 (88.0%) in weight-gain groups that had one or more measures during year 1.

  • # Blood pressure means based on 418 subjects (100%) in higher-stable, 1,542 (100%) in lower-stable, 314 (100%) in weight-loss, and 299 (99.7%) in weight-gain groups that had one or more measures during the baseline year. CHF, congestive heart failure; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; IQR, interquartile range.