Table 3—

Impact of 3-year weight change–trajectory pattern and covariates on above-goal A1C* and blood pressure at year 4

Unadjusted model
Adjusted model 1
Adjusted model 2
OR95% CIPOR95% CIPOR95% CIP
A1C outcome
    Weight trajectory clusters
        Higher stable weight2.361.64–3.39<0.00011.961.34–2.870.00061.661.12–2.470.0118
        Lower stable weight1.851.35–2.53<0.00011.831.32–2.550.00031.521.08–2.140.0158
        Weight gain2.821.91–4.16<0.00012.591.72–3.91<0.00011.771.15–2.720.0094
        Weight loss1.001.001.00
    Age (years)0.970.96–0.98<0.00010.970.96–0.98<0.0001
    Male sex1.020.84–1.240.8611.070.87–1.310.541
    A1C above goal (year 1)3.352.76–4.07<0.00012.421.97–2.98<0.0001
    Oral hyperglycemic medication class year 4
        Metformin1.541.14–2.080.0047
        Sulfonylureas2.161.67–2.81<0.0001
        Metformin and sulfonylureas4.403.30–5.86<0.0001
        Neither sulfonylureas nor metformin1.00
        Insulin2.251.41–3.590.0006
Blood pressure outcome
    Weight-trajectory clusters
        Higher stable weight1.821.31–2.520.00031.841.32–2.580.00041.831.31–2.570.0004
        Lower stable weight1.060.82–1.370.6661.050.80–1.370.7361.050.80–1.380.710
        Weight gain1.350.96–1.900.0881.471.03–2.090.03481.471.03–2.100.0347
        Weight loss1.001.001.00
    Age (years)1.021.01–1.030.00011.021.01–1.030.0008
    Male sex0.810.68–0.960.01690.810.68–0.970.0203
    Blood pressure above goal (baseline)§3.022.45–3.73<0.00012.942.37–3.64<0.0001
    Blood pressure medication class year 4
        β-blockers0.880.73–1.070.193
        Diuretics1.050.86–1.290.609
        ACE inhibitor/ARB1.040.86–1.250.691
        Other antihypertensives1.331.05–1.690.0194
  • * A1C models include the 1,911 (74.2%) patients who had one or more A1C measure in both years 1 and 4; above-goal is A1C ≥7%.

  • Blood pressure models include the 2,409 (93.6%) patients that had one or more blood pressure measurement at both baseline and year 4; above-goal is ≥130/80 mmHg.

  • These subgroups also contain 23 (1.2%) patients taking a thiazolidinedione or acarbose during year 4. No patients were taking repaglinide during year 4.

  • § Baseline blood pressure control based upon mean in 12-month pre-index of <130/80 mmHg.

  • Includes all remaining classes of medication used for hypertension. ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker.