Table 1—

Baseline characteristics by quintile of DED: EPIC-Norfolk Study

DED quintiles
P value*
12345
DED (kJ/g)1.04–2.432.43–2.782.78–3.123.12–3.553.55–7.97<0.001
Age (years)57.2 ± 8.657.9 ± 9.158.5 ± 9.358.5 ± 9.558.6 ± 9.60.331
Weight (kg)73.4 ± 13.473.0 ± 13.073.5 ± 13.073.4 ± 13.273.5 ± 12.9<0.001
Height (cm)165.4 ± 8.8166.0 ± 9.0167.0 ± 9.2167.7 ± 9.3168.5 ± 9.1<0.001
Waist (cm)87.0 ± 12.587.2 ± 12.488.1 ± 12.288.3 ± 12.288.8 ± 12.0<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)26.8 ± 4.126.4 ± 3.926.3 ± 3.826.0 ± 3.825.8 ± 3.7<0.001
Energy intake (kJ/day)6,493.0 ± 1,568.47,713.2 ± 1,720.78,526.5 ± 1,836.59,405.6 ± 2,099.510,904.8 ± 2,705.9<0.001
Fat intake (g/day)50.0 ± 15.965.2 ± 18.275.9 ± 20.387.3 ± 23.9106.6 ± 32.2<0.001
Energy from fat (%)29.0 ± 5.831.8 ± 5.233.5 ± 5.234.9 ± 5.036.6 ± 5.2<0.001
Alcohol (g/day)10.0 ± 15.79.9 ± 14.08.7 ± 12.67.9 ± 11.36.8 ± 9.8<0.001
Occupational status<0.001
    Professional305 (7.1)330.00 (7.7)303 (7.0)292 (6.8)262 (6.1)
    Managerial and technical1,709 (39.7)1,646 (38.3)1,617 (37.5)1,540 (35.7)1,387 (32.3)
    Skilled nonmanual683 (15.9)730 (17.0)731 (17.0)683 (15.9)717 (16.7)
    Skilled manual943 (21.9)910 (21.2)944 (21.9)1,048 (24.3)1,115 (25.9)
    Partly skilled525 (12.2)547.00 (12.7)548 (12.7)578 (13.4)634 (14.7)
    Unskilled125 (2.9)128.00 (3.0)153 (3.6)153 (3.6)173 (4.0)
Smoking<0.001
    Current610 (14.0)509 (11.7)470 (10.8)494 (11.4)484 (11.2)
    Former1,810 (41.6)1,785 (41.0)1,761 (40.5)1,835 (42.2)1,718 (39.7)
    Never1,935 (44.4)2,063 (47.4)2,115 (48.7)2,016 (46.4)2,131 (49.2)
Physical activity<0.001
    Inactive1,235 (28.2)1,279 (29.2)1,272 (29.0)1,272 (29.0)1,276 (29.1)
    Moderately inactive1,313 (30.0)1,353 (30.9)1,290 (29.4)1,246 (28.4)1,142 (26.1)
    Moderately active1,026 (23.4)981 (22.4)1,032 (23.5)1,005 (22.9)1,029 (23.5)
    Active810 (18.5)771 (17.6)790 (18.0)861 (19.6)935 (21.3)
Family history of diabetes (yes)552 (12.6)535 (12.2)566 (12.9)570 (13.0)522 (11.9)0.487
Obesity status<0.001
    Normal1,561 (35.7)1,708 (39.1)1,711 (39.1)1,855 (42.4)1,867 (42.7)
    Overweight2,012 (46)1,946 (44.5)2,027 (46.3)1,922 (43.9)1,964 (44.9)
    Obesity787 (18.0)706 (16.2)628 (14.3)571 (13.1)510 (11.7)
  • Data are range, means ± SD, or n (%).

  • *

    * P values are from ANOVA for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables.