Table 2—

Annual percentage change in diabetes prevalence, prescription claims, hospitalizations, and mortality between 1993 and 2001

OutcomeRates per 1,000
Overall trend
Period-specific trends*
Trend 1
Trend 2
19932001PeriodAPC (95% CI)PeriodAPC (95% CI)PeriodAPC (95% CI)
Diabetes prevalence
    Overall (age and sex adjusted)4.76.51993–20014.3 (3.8–4.8)
    Men (age adjusted)5.27.21993–20014.2 (3.9–4.6)
    Women (age adjusted)4.25.91993–20014.5 (4.1–4.8)
    Age <65 years (age and sex adjusted)2.94.21993–20014.7 (4.3–5.2)1993–19985.4 (4.5–6.4)1998–20013.6 (2.0–5.2)
    Aged ≥65 years (age and sex adjusted)11.215.31993–20014.0 (3.7–4.3)
Antihypertensive use
    Overall (age and sex adjusted)345.8487.11993–20014.8 (3.8–5.9)1993–19961.5 (−0.6 to 3.6)1996–20016.3 (5.5–7.0)
    Men (age adjusted)301.5468.31993–20016.3 (5.0–7.5)1993–19973.5 (1.1–6.0)1997–20018.5 (6.6–10.6)
    Women (age adjusted)386.5504.31993–20013.7 (2.9–4.6)1993–1995−0.8 (−6.3 to 5.0)1995–20014.6 (3.8–5.4)
    Aged <65 years (age and sex adjusted)290.8425.81993–20015.5 (4.2–6.9)1993–19961.0 (−1.36 to 3.32)1996–20017.4 (6.5–8.2)
    Aged ≥65 years (age and sex adjusted)550.8715.31993–20013.5 (3.1–3.9)
ACE inhibitor use
    Overall (age and sex adjusted)166.9328.61993–20019.2 (8.5–9.9)
    Men (age adjusted)155.5347.81993–200111.3 (10.5–12.1)
    Women (age adjusted)178.5311.81993–20017.4 (6.8–8.0)
    Aged <65 years (age and sex adjusted)146.8299.91993–20019.9 (9.0–10.9)1993–19977.8 (5.1–10.5)1997–200111.5 (9.6–13.4)
    Aged ≥65 years (age sex adjusted)241.9435.41993–20017.6 (7.1–8.2)
β-Blocker use
    Overall (age and sex adjusted)80.3112.51993–20015.2 (3.7–6.8)1993–1996−0.1 (−3.0 to 2.9)1996–20017.3 (6.3–8.4)
    Men (age adjusted)74.8111.61993–20016.6 (4.5–8.7)1993–1996−0.6 (−6.4 to 5.7)1996–20019.4 (7.3–11.6)
    Women (age adjusted)85.5113.41993–20014.1 (2.9–5.4)1993–1995−2.2 (−11.5 to 8.1)1995–20015.3 (3.9–6.6)
    Aged <65 years (age and sex adjusted)71.686.41993–20013.3 (1.5–5.1)1993–1996−2.9 (−5.6 to −0.1)1996–20015.9 (4.8–7.0)
    Aged ≥65 years (age and sex adjusted)113.0210.11993–20018.7 (7.6–9.9)
CCB use
    Overall (age and sex adjusted)119.1129.21993–20010.8 (0.4–2.0)1993–1998−1.2 (−1.5 to −0.8)1998–20014.3 (3.6–5.0)
    Men (age adjusted)117.2124.01993–20010.54 (−0.8 to 1.9)1993–1998−1.7 (−2.4 to −1.0)1998–20014.7 (3.2–6.2)
    Women (age adjusted)120.8134.11993–20011.1 (−0.1 to 2.2)1993–1999−0.3 (−0.8 to 0.3)1999–20016.0 (3.1–9.0)
    Aged <65 years (age and sex adjusted)95.095.81993–20010.0 (−1.6 to 1.6)1993–1998−2.6 (−3.0 to −2.2)1998–20014.8 (3.9–5.6)
    Aged ≥65 years (age and sex adjusted)208.8254.11993–20012.0 (1.2–2.8)1993–19991.2 (0.1–2.3)1999–20015.1 (−0.45 to 11.0)
Statin use
    Overall (age and sex adjusted)54.8177.11993–200117.9 (15.0–20.8)1993–199710.5 (7.8–13.3)1997–200122.6 (20.0–24.4)
    Men (age adjusted)59.5191.91993–200117.4 (15.2–19.7)1996–20019.0 (1.5–17.1)1996–200120.2 (18.0–22.4)
    Women (age adjusted)50.3163.41993–200118.4 (14.1–22.9)
    Aged <65 years (age and sex adjusted)55.1165.41993–200116.8 (13.4–20.4)1993–19978.4 (5.5–11.4)1997–200122.6 (20.7–24.6)
    Aged ≥65 years (age and sex adjusted)53.5220.81993–200120.8 (19.0–22.6)
All-cause hospitalization
    Overall age-sex adjusted300.3252.71993–2001−1.6 (−2.1 to −1.1)
    Men (age adjusted)275.8231.61993–2001−1.8 (−2.4 to −1.3)
    Women (age adjusted)322.9272.11993–2001−1.5 (−2.2 to −0.9)
    Aged <65 years (age and sex adjusted)269.3219.31993–2001−2.2 (−2.7 to −1.6)
    Aged ≥65 year (age and sex adjusted)416.0376.91993–2001−0.6 (−1.5 to 0.2)
Cerebrovascular-related hospitalization
    Overall (age and sex adjusted)9.56.11993–2001−5.4 (−6.7 to −3.7)
    Men (age adjusted)10.06.01993–2001−6.0 (−8.5 to −3.5)
    Women (age adjusted)9.06.11993–2001−5.0 (−6.5 to −3.5)
    Aged <65 years (age and sex adjusted)4.63.11993–2001−6.4 (−11 to −1.4)
    Aged ≥65 years (age and sex adjusted)27.717.11993–2001−4.7 (−6.1 to −3.3)
Cardiac-related hospitalization
    Overall (age and sex adjusted)38.030.61993–2001−2.0 (−3.2 to −0.8)
    Men (age adjusted)42.633.41993–2001−2.2 (−3.2 to −1.1)
    Women (age adjusted)33.828.01993–2001−1.8 (−4.1 to 0.6)
    Aged <65 years (age and sex adjusted)24.118.71993–2001−2.3 (−3.9 to −0.7)
    Aged ≥65 years (age and sex adjusted)89.875.21993–2001−1.6 (−2.8 to −0.5)
All-cause mortality
    Overall (age and sex adjusted)17.717.81993–2001−0.1 (−1.4 to 1.3)
    Men (age adjusted)18.117.71993–2001−0.7 (−3.1 to 1.7)
    Women (age adjusted)17.317.91993–20010.4 (−1.3 to 2.2)
    Aged <65 years (age and sex adjusted)8.07.21993–2001−3.7 (−9.2 to 2.1)
    Aged ≥65 years (age and sex adjusted)54.457.31993–20011.1 (−0.4 to 2.5)
  • *

    * Only outcomes assessed that had a statistically significant linear difference from the overall trend in direction or magnitude are presented.

  • APC differs significantly from zero (P < 0.05).