Table 3—

Biological interactions between A1C and albuminuria

Measures of biological interaction
    Interaction model 1
        RERI2.27 (0.67–3.87)*
        AP0.44 (0.17–0.72)*
        S2.23 (0.97–5.15)
    Interaction model 2
        RERI0.93 (0.12–1.74)*
        AP0.38 (0.01–0.75)*
        S2.77 (0.31–24.33)
    Interaction model 3
        RERI0.92 (0.16–1.68)*
        AP0.40 (0.01–0.78)*
        S3.78 (0.19–56.11)
  • Data are estimates (95% CI).

  • *

    * Statistically significant with RERI >0, AP >0, and S >1, indicating biological interaction.

  • Not adjusted for other covariates.

  • Adjusted for traditional risk factors including age, sex, smoking status (current and former), hypertension (defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or on ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers, or on other antihypertensive drugs), BMI, HDL cholesterol, duration of diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and use of drugs at baseline (lipid-lowering drugs, oral anti-diabetic drugs, and insulin).

  • Adjusted for the covariates listed for interaction model 1, but spline was used for all the continuous covariates.