Table 1—

Influence of updated mean A1C alone (model 1), inclusive of mean A1C SD (model 2), or updated mean A1C (model 3) on complication risk

Intensive group HR (95% CI)P valueConventional group HR (95% CI)P valueCombined HR (95% CI)P value
Model 1
    Retinopathy
        Mean A1C1.20 (1.04–1.39)0.0161.24 (1.12–1.36)<0.00011.22 (1.12–1.32)<0.0001
    Nephropathy
        Mean A1C1.06 (0.96–1.17)0.241.21 (1.10–1.33)<0.00011.13 (1.05–1.22)0.001
Model 2
    Retinopathy
        Mean A1C1.15 (0.95–1.40)0.161.18 (1.07–1.29)0.0011.17 (1.08–1.28)<0.0001
        A1C SD2.53 (1.36–4.68)0.0032.11 (1.42–3.20)<0.00012.26 (1.63–3.14)<0.0001
    Nephropathy
        Mean A1C1.052 (0.89–1.23)0.541.15 (1.04–1.27)0.0051.11 (1.02–1.21)0.009
        A1C SD1.51 (0.88–2.60)0.142.30 (1.57–3.37)<0.00011.80 (1.37–2.42)<0.0001
Model 3
    Retinopathy
        Mean A1C1.09 (0.97–1.23)0.171.18 (1.07–1.31)0.0011.14 (1.05–1.24)0.002
        Updated A1C SD3.22 (1.95–5.32)<0.00011.70 (1.14–2.52)0.0092.11 (1.54–2.89)<0.0001
    Nephropathy
        Mean A1C1.03 (0.94–1.13)0.521.15 (1.04–1.27)0.0041.08 (1.01–1.16)0.027
        Updated A1C SD1.91 (1.21–3.10)0.0051.94 (1.34–2.89)<0.00011.86 (1.41–2.47)<0.0001
  • Models were adjusted for age, sex, duration, intervention group (when groups were combined), and A1C at eligibility: A1C time dependent and blood glucose time dependent. Models used were from 6 months onward.