Table 1

Characteristics of SHS participants free of diabetes at baseline (1989–1991)

No DM events
(n = 1,298, 76.6%)DM events
(n = 396, 23.4%)P value
Age (years)54.6 (48.8–61.8)53.3 (48.5–60.3)0.05
Male sex610 (47.0)153 (38.6)<0.01
Location<0.01
 Arizona255 (19.7)114 (28.8)
 Oklahoma504 (38.8)109 (27.5)
 North and South Dakota539 (41.5)173 (43.7)
Education0.06
 No high school230 (17.7)91 (23.0)
 Some high school305 (23.5)89 (22.5)
 High school or more763 (58.8)216 (54.6)
Smoking0.05
 Never353 (27.2)126 (31.8)
 Former398 (30.7)129 (32.6)
 Current547 (42.1)141 (35.6)
Alcohol0.19
 Never158 (12.2)61 (15.4)
 Former499 (38.4)154 (38.9)
 Current641 (49.4)181 (45.7)
BMI (kg/m2)28.0 (25.0–31.9)30.9 (28.1–35.3)<0.01
Waist-to-hip ratio0.94 (0.89–0.98)0.96 (0.92–0.99)<0.01
Waist circumference (cm)98 (91–107)106 (98–116)<0.01
Body fat (%)33.3 (27.1–40.8)38.5 (31.1–44.3)<0.01
Urine creatinine (g/L)1.3 (0.8–1.8)1.2 (0.9–1.7)0.80
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)81.3 (71.6–92.7)81.1 (70.8–93.7)0.48
Fasting glucose (mg/dL)100 (93–107)106 (98–113)<0.01
HbA1c (%)5.0 (4.7–5.4)a5.3 (4.9–5.7)b<0.01
HbA1c (mmol/mol)31.2 (27.9–35.5)a34.4 (30.1–38.6)b<0.01
Arsenic exposure
 iAs + methylated arsenic (μg/g)8.7 (5.3–13.8)9.1 (5.9–14.0)0.32
 iAs (μg/g)0.7 (0.4–1.4)0.7 (0.4–1.3)0.87
 MMA (μg/g)1.3 (0.8–2.2)1.2 (0.8–2.1)0.58
 DMA (μg/g)6.4 (4.0–10.3)7.0 (4.4–11.2)0.16
Arsenic metabolism
 iAs%8.4 (5.7–11.6)8.1 (5.7–10.7)0.09
 MMA%15.5 (12.0–19.1)14.0 (11.2–17.1)<0.01
 DMA%75.9 (69.6–81.3)77.4 (72.6–81.9)<0.01
  • Data are median (interquartile range) or n (%). DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

  • a n = 1,214.

  • b n = 375.