Table 1—

Baseline characteristics by quartile of ACR

CharacteristicsQuartiles of ACR
Correlation coefficientP value*
1234
n797797797797
ACR (mg/g)3.0 (0.7–3.7)4.6 (3.7–5.5)7.1 (5.5–9.7)16.5 (9.7–1578)
Age (years)50.0 ± 10.650.3 ± 10.350.7 ± 10.551.5 ± 11.10.040.02
Sex (% male)41.334.125.528.4<0.01
Race (as row %)0.77
    White23.725.326.924.1
    Black31.420.221.826.7
    Hispanic23.026.625.924.5
    Native American23.030.320.426.3
    Asian22.422.430.624.7
Family history of diabetes (% yes)70.870.968.368.40.94
History of gestational diabetes (% yes)16.015.815.317.20.78
BMI (kg/m2)33 ± 634 ± 734 ± 635 ± 70.09<0.01
Waist circumference (cm)105 ± 13104 ± 15104 ± 14107 ± 150.07<0.01
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)107 ± 9106 ± 8106 ± 8107 ± 8<−0.010.94
2-h OGTT (mg/dl)165 ± 17164 ± 17164 ± 17166 ± 170.030.06
Fasting insulin (pmol/l)25 ± 1326 ± 1427 ± 1629 ± 170.08<0.01
A1C (%)5.9 ± 0.55.9 ± 0.55.9 ± 0.56.0 ± 0.50.050.01
Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance6.6 ± 3.67.0 ± 3.97.0 ± 4.47.7 ± 4.70.07<0.01
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)120 ± 14122 ± 14124 ± 14129 ± 160.2<0.01
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)77 ± 977 ± 978 ± 981 ± 100.1<0.01
Smoking (%)7.95.55.58.80.27
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)0.83 ± 0.170.78 ± 0.170.76 ± 0.160.76 ± 0.18−0.16<0.01
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)203 ± 36202 ± 37205 ± 36204 ± 370.020.21
Triglycerides (mg/dl)160 ± 89164 ± 91160 ± 92171 ± 1110.010.47
Medication usage (%)
    ACE inhibitor6.16.58.310.2<0.01
    Angiotensin receptor blocker1.00.91.01.00.91
    Calcium channel blocker5.55.16.912.0<0.01
    Diuretic1.82.01.81.90.50
Study randomization (%)0.75
    Lifestyle32.434.831.534.9
    Metformin35.930.232.733.4
    Placebo31.735.035.831.7
  • Data are median (25th–75th quartile) or means ± SD unless indicated otherwise.

  • *

    * P values are calculated using Spearman's rank correlation for continuous variables (e.g., age or BMI). For categorical variables (e.g., sex or race), P values are from ANOVA tests using base 2 logarithm of urinary albumin excretion.

  • Nine of the 60 participants taking diuretics at baseline were taking thiazides, which is a protocol violation.