Table 2—

Relative hazards for developing diabetes in the DPP by quartile of baseline ACR

Study armHRs (95% CI) for quartile of ACR
1 (0.7–3.7 mg/g)2 (3.7–5.5 mg/g)3 (5.5–9.7 mg/g)4 (9.7–1,578 mg/g)
Placebo (n = 1,070)
    Unadjusted1.00.66 (0.47–0.93)0.81 (0.58–1.12)1.01 (0.72–1.37)
    Adjusted*1.00.51 (0.33–0.79)0.68 (0.44–1.03)0.76 (0.50–1.15)
Lifestyle (n = 1,064)
    Unadjusted1.01.64 (0.99–2.72)1.57 (0.93–2.64)1.85 (1.12–3.06)
    Adjusted*1.01.56 (0.83–2.93)1.15 (0.58–2.29)1.62 (0.84–3.14)
Metformin (n = 1,054)
    Unadjusted1.01.21 (0.82–1.78)1.13 (0.76–1.66)1.39 (0.96–2.03)
    Adjusted*1.01.21 (0.76–1.93)1.03 (0.64–1.64)0.98 (0.60–1.58)
  • Data are median (range). ACR is calculated as milligrams of albumin/grams of creatinine.

  • *

    * Adjusted for baseline: age, sex, race, BMI, waist circumference, fasting insulin, insulin sensitivity/secretion, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, and ACE inhibitor and calcium channel blocker use. Also adjusted are time-dependent changes in weight and physical activity.