Table 1—

Studies of depression and metabolic syndrome

nSexAge range (years)Depression measureMetabolic syndrome measureMain outcomes
Herva et al. (9)5,698Men and women31 meanHSCL-25ATP IIINo clear association between metabolic syndrome and psychological distress
Kinder et al. (8)6,189Men and women17–39SCIDATP IIIAssociation between metabolic syndrome and depression in women only; high blood pressure and high triglycerides associated with depression
McCaffery et al. (10)173 pairsTwin men≥45CES-D*Small association between metabolic syndrome and depression (participants with self-reported diabetes excluded)
Miller et al. (25)100Men and women18–45HAM-D; BDI*Evidence linking depressive symptoms with inflammatory processes as part of the mechanism for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality
Raikkonen et al. (11)425Women42–50 (at study entry)BDIATP IIIDepression, anxiety, tension, and anger are associated concurrently with and/or predict the risk for developing metabolic syndrome
Raikkonen et al. (12)432WomenMiddle-agedBDIWHO, ATP III, IDFDepressive symptoms associated with the cumulative prevalence and risk for developing metabolic syndrome for all criteria used
Vogelzangs et al. (17)867Men and women≥65CES-DATP IIISynergistic relationship between depression, cortisol, and metabolic syndrome
Skilton et al. (13)1,598Men and women30–80HADS-DATP III; IDFAssociation between metabolic syndrome and depression in a cohort of subjects at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease
  • *

    * Authors were not using any of the defined criteria of metabolic syndrome but were analyzing clusters of metabolic factors.

  • Longitudinal in design. BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; CES-D, Centre for Epidemiological Studies–Depression Scale; HAM-D, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; HSCL, Hopkins Symptom Checklist; SCID, Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; WHO, World Health Organization.