Table 2—

Sample characteristics of participants aged 25–84 years

n (%)n (%)Pn (%)P
ABA vs. BCA vs. C
Overall metabolic syndromeNoYes (diabetes included)Yes (diabetes excluded)
n936 (100)409 (100)338 (100)
Sex0.3060.338
    Men446 (47.6)208 (50.9)172 (50.9)
    Women490 (52.4)201 (49.1)166 (49.1)
Diabetes (self-reported or fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l)19 (2.0)71 (17.4)<0.001NANA
Age (years)55.0 ± 13.160.5 ± 10.8<0.00159.8 ± 10.9<0.001
Smoking0.2500.488
    Current132 (14.1)49 (12.0)34 (10.1)
    Ex-smoker303 (32.4)150 (36.7)111 (32.8)
    Nonsmoker501 (53.5)210 (51.3)193 (57.1)
Alcohol (g/week)7.4 ± 11.66.6 ± 10.60.1966.9 ± 10.90.442
Daily physical activity (>30 min)767 (81.9)314 (76.8)0.034261 (77.2)0.071
Depression65 (6.9)41 (10.0)0.06934 (10.1)0.086
Anxiety97 (10.4)40 (9.8)0.82031 (9.2)0.604
Psychological distress241 (25.7)123 (30.1)0.115103 (30.5)0.108
Metabolic syndrome components*
    Elevated fasting glucose112 (12.1)247 (60.1)<0.001176 (52.7)<0.001
    Hypertension441 (47.1)374 (91.4)<0.001306 (40.5)<0.001
    Elevated triglycerides129 (13.9)281 (71.1)<0.001239 (72.2)<0.001
    Low HDL cholesterol67 (7.2)194 (47.8)<0.001158 (46.7)<0.001
    Central obesity226 (24.3)351 (86.2)<0.001288 (85.5)<0.001
  • Data are n (%) or means ± SD.

  • *

    * Cutoffs are for NCEP ATP III criteria as defined in research design and methods.

  • P values were obtained by χ2 or independent t test, as appropriate. A: Participants without metabolic syndrome. B: Participants with metabolic syndrome including those with type 2 diabetes. C: Participants with the metabolic syndrome, excluding those with type 2 diabetes. NA, not available.