Table 1—

Comparative prospective studies of depression and incident type 2 diabetes

AuthorFollow-upIncident n/Total nSample sourceSample composition*Depression assessmentDiabetes assessmentSelected estimate (95% CI)Statistical adjustment for selected estimate†
Eaton et al. (17)13 years89/1,920Population basedAge: ≥18 yearsDiagnostic Interview ScheduleSelf-report2.23 (0.90–5.55)Age, sex, race, and BMI
63% F
34% B
Kawakami et al. (26)8 years41/2,380Occupation basedAge: ≥18 yearsZung Self-Report Depression ScaleOGTT2.32 (1.06–5.08)Age
Only men
100% A
Stellato et al. (21)9 years54/1,156Population basedAge: 40–70 yearsCES-DSelf-report3.09 (1.34–7.12)Free testosterone, SHBG, hypertension, heart disease, and BMI
Only men
97% W
Carnethon et al. (18)15.6 years369/6,190Population basedAge: 25–74 yearsGeneral Well-Being ScaleSelf-report, MRD, death certificate2.52 (1.73–3.67)Age, race, and sex
59% F
15% B
Arroyo et al. (14)4 years973/72,178Occupation basedAge: 45–72 yearsShort-Form 36Self-report1.55 (1.27–1.90)Age
Only women
∼100% W
Everson-Rose et al. (19)3 years96/2,662Population basedAge: 42–52 yearsCES-DSelf-report, FPG1.66 (1.05–2.61)Age, study site, race, education, and medication use
Only women
47% W
Golden et al. (22)6 years721/11,615Population basedAge: 48–67 yearsVital Exhaustion QuestionnaireSelf-report, FSG1.63 (1.31–2.02)Age, sex, race, study site, and education
56% F
22% B
Kumari et al. (27)10.5 years361/10,308Occupation basedAge: 35–55 yearsGeneral Health QuestionnaireSelf-report, OGTT1.14 (0.83–1.57)Age, sex, length of follow-up, ethnicity, electrocardiogram abnormalities, and employment grade
44% F
∼95% W
Palinkas et al. (28)8 years79/971Population basedAge: ≥50 yearsBDIOGTT, FPG, non-FPG2.50 (1.29–4.87)Age, sex, physical activity, and BMI
57% F
100% W
van den Akker et al. (20)15 years3,245/68,004Clinic networkAge: ≥20 yearsInternational Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care (ICHPPC-2)MRD1.04 (0.84–1.28)Age, sex, BMI, socioeconomic status, and interaction of depression*age*sex
58% F
Mallon et al. (23)12 years88/2,663Population basedAge: 45–65 yearsSelf-reported dysphoriaSelf-report1.47 (0.48–4.47)Age
53% F
Carnethon et al. (24)8 years147/4,681Population basedAge: ≥65 yearsCES-DDiabetes medication use or FPG1.63 (1.12–2.36)Age, race, and sex
59% F
13% B
Engum (25)10 years653/37,291Population basedAge: ≥30 yearsAnxiety and Depression IndexSelf-report, confirmed with FPG1.51 (1.27–1.80)Age, sex, education, and marital status
55% F
  • *

    * Racial/ethnic composition not provided for some studies: A, Asian; B, African American; F, female; W, non-Hispanic white. BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; CES-D, Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; MRD, medical record diagnosis; OGTT, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test; SHBG, sex hormone–binding globulin.

  • Selected estimate refers to estimate that is most closely adjusted for only demographic characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic indicators, and marital status) and is the estimate used in the pooled analyses and are depicted in Figure 1. Estimates for Mallon et al. (23) and Kumari et al. (24) derived from pooled random-effects models across sex.