Table 1—

Meta-analysis results aggregated by type of self-care

nz (P)Weighted r95% CIHeterogeneity Q (df) and I2Fail-safe n (r = 0.05)
Overall analysis479.81 (<0.001)0.210.17–0.25217.66 (46); P < 0.001; I2 = 78.87149
Appointment keeping421.58 (<0.001)0.310.29–0.341.79 (3); P = 0.617; I2 = 0.0022
Composite measures189.66 (<0.001)0.290.23–0.3438.60 (17); P = 0.002; I2 =55.9688
Diet187.60 (<0.001)0.180.13–0.2233.67 (17); P = 0.009; I2 = 49.5137
Medication185.15 (<0.001)0.140.09–0.2049.73 (16); P < 0.001; I2 = 65.8224
Exercise137.89 (<0.001)0.140.10–0.1714.43 (12); P = 0.274; I2 = 16.8622
Glucose monitoring153.50 (<0.001)0.100.04–0.1631.00 (14); P = 0.006; I2 = 54.824
Foot care20.88 (0.380)0.07−0.08 to 0.214.27 (1); P = 0.039; I2 = 76.59NA