Table 2—

Mean A1C and the proportion of individuals with A1C <7.0% by NHANES wave

A1C
A1C <7%
NHANES 1999–2000NHANES 2001–2002NHANES 2003–2004NHANES 1999–2000NHANES 2001–2002NHANES 2003–2004
n403448482403448482
Overall7.82 ± 0.177.47 ± 0.167.18 ± 0.11*36.9% ± 4.449.4 ± 3.6*56.8 ± 3.5*
Age
    18–44 years8.71 ± 0.827.68 ± 0.317.22 ± 0.2429.7 ± 13.042.9 ± 9.148.5 ± 5.3
    45–64 years7.81 ± 0.197.68 ± 0.257.59 ± 0.1840.0 ± 6.647.5 ± 4.248.5 ± 5.8
    65+ years7.49 ± 0.167.04 ± 0.12*6.72 ± 0.07*36.2 ± 6.056.3 ± 4.4*68.3 ± 2.7*
Sex
    Female7.91 ± 0.287.36 ± 0.167.04 ± 0.10*37.1 ± 5.952.3 ± 4.0*58.2 ± 4.6*
    Male7.75 ± 0.147.57 ± 0.217.33 ± 0.2336.7 ± 4.746.6 ± 4.455.2 ± 4.5*
Race/ethnicity
    White non-Hispanic7.52 ± 0.257.23 ± 0.146.90 ± 0.11*41.5 ± 6.753.3 ± 4.263.3 ± 4.3*
    Black non-Hispanic8.26 ± 0.217.82 ± 0.227.61 ± 0.21*28.5 ± 4.044.2 ± 4.2*44.4 ± 5.0*
    Hispanic8.10 ± 0.177.71 ± 0.368.36 ± 0.3435.2 ± 5.947.1 ± 5.137.2 ± 6.2
    Other9.01 ± 0.258.40 ± 0.657.15 ± 0.18*16.9 ± 7.830.3 ± 15.040.6 ± 12.8
Education
    <High school7.96 ± 0.137.57 ± 0.277.57 ± 0.2930.5 ± 3.951.5 ± 5.2*43.7 ± 5.5
    High school7.32 ± 0.277.47 ± 0.167.01 ± 0.1451.6 ± 7.047.2 ± 5.258.8 ± 5.4
    >High school8.05 ± 0.417.40 ± 0.227.01 ± 0.12*33.9 ± 7.449.2 ± 4.364.2 ± 4.7*
BMI
    BMI <30 kg/m28.13 ± 0.317.48 ± 0.287.34 ± 0.15*32.8 ± 7.753.9 ± 5.0*50.6 ± 5.1
    BMI ≥30 kg/m27.62 ± 0.117.46 ± 0.137.06 ± 0.15*38.8 ± 4.945.8 ± 4.761.3 ± 4.5*
Income
    <$20,0008.18 ± 0.317.22 ± 0.20*7.23 ± 0.19*33.7 ± 4.954.8 ± 4.3*55.4 ± 5.9*
    ≥$20,0007.66 ± 0.177.55 ± 0.197.16 ± 0.12*38.4 ± 6.447.6 ± 4.157.3 ± 3.8*
Insurance
    Uninsured8.55 ± 0.708.44 ± 0.517.54 ± 0.3844.3 ± 9.637.8 ± 6.846.1 ± 12.2
    Insured7.70 ± 0.157.35 ± 0.157.13 ± 0.12*35.6 ± 5.050.8 ± 3.7*58.1 ± 3.8*
Duration
    <5 years7.94 ± 0.497.09 ± 0.176.74 ± 0.20*40.7 ± 7.157.8 ± 5.0*74.2 ± 5.3*
    5–14 years7.94 ± 0.137.88 ± 0.327.49 ± 0.15*34.2 ± 4.241.3 ± 5.950.0 ± 4.5*
    15+ years7.58 ± 0.197.46 ± 0.227.26 ± 0.1535.7 ± 7.048.2 ± 5.544.6 ± 6.5
Smoker
    Current7.99 ± 0.337.49 ± 0.317.48 ± 0.3228.9 ± 10.550.0 ± 8.050.2 ± 6.1
    Former7.47 ± 0.147.18 ± 0.267.00 ± 0.13*46.6 ± 4.055.7 ± 8.060.3 ± 5.4*
    Never8.00 ± 0.287.65 ± 0.207.17 ± 0.14*33.2 ± 5.044.6 ± 4.957.3 ± 4.8*
Diabetes treatment
    Diabetes pills only7.80 ± 0.187.37 ± 0.177.26 ± 0.07*34.1 ± 4.950.3 ± 4.1*55.3 ± 3.8&*
    Insulin only8.70 ± 0.408.15 ± 0.317.79 ± 0.2524.2 ± 10.430.4 ± 6.733.2 ± 9.6
    Pills and insulin8.32 ± 0.208.22 ± 0.457.92 ± 0.1613.7 ± 6.926.1 ± 12.236.3 ± 7.0*
    Diet only7.04 ± 0.316.73 ± 0.436.07 ± 0.18*62.6 ± 9.877.2 ± 7.189.7 ± 4.8*
  • Data are means ± SEM.

  • * Significantly different from NHANES 1999–2000 at P < 0.05.