Table 1—

Baseline characteristics according to diabetes status at follow-up: the AusDiab study

Diabetes status at follow-up
P value
With diabetesWithout diabetes
n2245618
Male subjects (%)51.345.0<0.001
Age (years)55.8 ± 12.050.7 ± 12.60.06
Waist circumference (cm)
    Men104.1 ± 11.696.4 ± 10.6<0.001
    Women92.7 ± 14.783.8 ± 12.4<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)
    Men29.3 ± 0.426.9 ± 0.1<0.001
    Women29.7 ± 0.626.3 ± 0.1<0.001
Smoking status (%)0.003
    Nonsmoker51.859.8
    Ex-smoker32.629.1
    Current smoker15.611.1
Education (%)<0.001
    Never attended school or attended primary school only10.74.2
    Some high school38.435.1
    Completed high school17.918.9
    University/technical and further education33.042.0
Physical activity (min/week) (%)<0.001
    Sufficient (≥150 min/week leisure-time physical activity)40.754.4
    Insufficient (1–149 min/week leisure-time physical activity)37.630.7
    Inactive (0 min/week leisure-time physical activity)21.715.0
Hypertension (%)*54.627.6<0.001
Family history of diabetes (%)30.517.8<0.001
FPG (mmol/l)6.0 (5.5–6.4)5.3 (5.0–5.6)<0.001
2hPG (mmol/l)8.0 (6.7–9.4)5.7 (4.8–6.7)<0.001
A1C (percent)5.5 (5.2–5.7)5.1 (4.9–5.3)<0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.9 ± 1.05.6 ± 1.1<0.001
Low HDL cholesterol (%)37.121.4<0.001
Hypertriglyceridemia (%)41.519.2<0.001
Glucose tolerance status (%)<0.001
    Normal glycemia25.982.9
    IFG19.65.8
    IGT54.511.3
  • Data are means ± SD, median (25th–75th percentile), or percent.

  • *

    * Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or reporting antihypertensive medication use.

  • Low HDL cholesterol was defined as HDL cholesterol <1.03 mmol/l for men and <1.29 mmol/l for women.

  • Hypertriglyceridemia was defined as triglycerides ≥2.0 mmol/l.