Table 3—

Risk factors associated with incident diabetes: the AusDiab study

CharacteristicsOdds ratio (95% CI)
Age and sex adjustedMultivariate adjusted*
Age (per 10 years)1.37 (1.23–1.52)1.12 (0.97–1.29)
Female sex0.79 (0.61–1.04)1.22 (0.89–1.68)
Waist circumference (per SD)1.84 (1.62–2.09)1.26 (1.08–1.48)
Smoking status
    Nonsmoker1.001.00
    Former smoker1.15 (0.84–1.57)1.03 (0.74–1.44)
    Current smoker1.83 (1.23–2.74)1.70 (1.11–2.63)
Education
    University/further education1.001.00
    Completed secondary school1.20 (0.81–1.78)1.23 (0.81–1.87)
    Some secondary school1.24 (0.90–1.72)0.95 (0.68–1.37)
    Primary school/never attended school2.16 (1.30–3.61)1.85 (1.04–3.31)
Physical inactivity (min/week)
    Sufficient (≥150 min/week leisure-time physical activity)1.001.00
    Insufficient (1–49 min/week leisure-time physical activity)1.71 (1.26–2.33)1.51 (1.01–2.25)
    Inactive (0 min/week leisure-time physical activity)1.99 (1.39–2.86)1.56 (1.12–2.18)
Hypertension§2.64 (1.94–3.60)1.64 (1.17–2.28)
Family history of diabetes2.19 (1.60–2.13)1.82 (1.30–2.52)
Log FPG (per SD)7.11 (5.51–9.16)5.25 (3.98–6.92)
Log A1C (per SD)8.39 (6.50–10.84)3.94 (2.92–5.32)
Log 2hPG (per SD)4.83 (3.94–5.92)3.49 (2.77–4.40)
Hypertriglyceridemia2.80 (2.12–3.69)1.46 (1.04–2.02)
Low HDL cholesterol2.32 (1.75–3.07)1.09 (0.78–1.53)
Total cholesterol (per mmol/l)1.21 (0.91–1.60)Not included in model
  • Data are odds ratio (95% CI) from univariate and multivariate logistic regression of incident diabetes and risk factors.

  • *

    * Analyses adjusted for all factors listed in Table 3 except for A1C and 2hPG.

  • P for trend <0.05.

  • Physical activity time for the previous week was calculated as the sum of the time spent performing moderate activity (e.g. walking) plus double the time spent in vigorous activity.

  • §

    § Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or reporting antihypertensive medication use.

  • Hypertriglyceridemia was defined as triglycerides ≥2.0 mmol/l.

  • Low HDL cholesterol was defined as HDL cholesterol <1.03 mmol/l for men and <1.29 mmol/l for women.