Table 1—

Model variables, descriptions, and data sources

Data sources
Reference value for adjusted estimatesReasons for inclusion in analysis
Independent variableValuesU.S.*Mexico*
SexMale, femaleDeath recordDeath recordMaleIndicators of socioeconomic determinants of access, utilization, and quality of care
Race and Hispanic ethnicityWhite NH men, white NH women, black NH men, black NH women, Hispanic men, Hispanic women, other NH men, other NH womenDeath recordNAWhite NH men
Insurance statusInsured/not insuredNADeath recordInsured
Educational levelLess than high school, less than college, college or postgraduateDeath recordDeath recordCollege educated
Place of deathIn-hospital (defined as hospital or health care facility), out-of-hospitalDeath recordDeath recordIn hospitalIndicator of a more complete medical history before/at the time of death
Age5-year intervals from 20 to 85+Death recordDeath recordDecedent's actual ageIncorporating the true age patterns of diabetes and other causes of death
SBPMean SBP by sex, 5-year age-groups, and state of residencyBRFSS corrected for bias in self-reported hypertension status based on NHANESENSANUT 2005–2006Actual SBP of the decedent's state, age-group, and sexRisk factors for diabetes and/or cardiovascular deaths; community-level data were used because death certificate does not include these data for individuals
BMIMean BMI by sex, 5-year age-groups, and state of residencyBRFSS corrected for bias in self-reported weight and height based on NHANES (14)ENSA 2000Actual BMI of the decedent's state, age-group, and sex
NecropsyNecropsy performed, not performedNADeath recordPerformedIndicators of specialized medical knowledge used in assigning causes of death
Cardiologists, endocrinologists, nephrologistsCounty-level estimate of cardiologists, endocrinologists, and nephrologists per 100,000 residents; ranges: 1.9–12.7, 0.1–4.3, and 0.1–3.7, respectivelyDartmouth Atlas of Health CareNA80th percentile of all national counties: 7.6/100,000, 1.3/100,000, and 1.8/100,000
  • *

    * NA refers to those variables for which data in one country were not available and not included in analysis for that country.

  • NH refers to non-Hispanic.

  • The Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care (year 1999) ( provides estimates for Hospital Referral Region, which are linked to zip codes that can in turn be mapped to county codes. Because zip codes do not map exactly to county boundaries, counties that did not have a value for cardiologists were assigned the same value as the adjacent county with the closest per capita income. BRFSS, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System; ENSA, Encuesta Nacional de Salud (National Health Survey); ENSANUT, Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutricion (National Health and Nutritional Survey); NHANES, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.