Table 1—

Sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and intermediate outcomes stratified by tertile of perceived neighborhood problems score

Total sample*Tertile of perceived neighborhood problems score
P
1 (most problems)23 (fewest problems)
Sociodemographics
    Mean age (years)61.861.661.662.10.26
    Sex
        Female4,200 (53.6)1,380 (59.5)1,432 (52.5)1,388 (49.9)<0.01
    Education
        <High school1,516 (19.8)539 (23.8)456 (17.1)521 (19.2)<0.01
        High school graduate2,266 (29.7)743 (32.9)761 (28.5)762 (28.1)
        >High school3,858 (50.50)980 (43.3)1453 (54.4)1425 (52.6)
    Annual income (thousands)
        <$151,496 (22.6)647 (33.4)470 (20.0)379 (16.3)<0.01
        $15–$402,161 (32.7)659 (34.0)770 (32.8)732 (31.5)
        $40–$751,713 (25.9)408 (21.1)625 (26.6)680 (29.3)
        >$751,242 (18.8)224 (11.6)485 (20.60)533 (22.9)
    Race/ethnicity
        Hispanic1,169 (16.0)315 (14.6)361 (13.9)493 (18.9)<0.01
        Non-Hispanic black1,063 (14.4)418 (19.4)356 (13.7)289 (11.1)
        Non-Hispanic white3,355 (45.5)926 (42.9)1,266 (48.6)1,163 (44.6)
        Asian/Pacific Islander1,146 (15.6)292 (13.5)393 (15.1)461 (17.7)
        Other636 (8.6)206 (9.6)227 (8.7)203 (7.8)
    Charlson Comorbidity Index (from baseline)2.20 ± 1.52.30 ± 1.62.16 ± 1.52.15 ± 1.5<0.01
    Percent poverty (objective neighborhood index)12151211<0.01
Health behaviors
    Smoking
        Nonsmoker6,584 (84.7)1,885 (82.0)2,285 (84.3)2,414 (87.5)<0.01
        Current smoker1,187 (15.3)415 (18.0)426 (15.7)346 (12.5)
    Physical activity (weekly)
        None657 (8.6)241 (10.8)202 (7.5)214 (7.8)<0.01
        Light3,584 (46.80)1,113 (49.80)1,247 (46.3)1,224 (44.9)
        Vigorous3,417 (44.6)881 (39.4)1,245 (46.2)1,291 (47.3)
    SMBG
        Less than once/day3,857 (50.2)1,142 (50.5)1,339 (49.9)1,376 (50.2)0.93
        Once/day or more3,829 (49.8)1,120 (49.5)1,342 (50.1)1,367 (49.8)
    Foot care
        No2,805 (37.5)840 (38.6)958 (36.4)1,007 (37.9)0.23
        Yes4,673 (62.5)1,339 (61.5)1,684 (63.7)1,650 (62.1)
Intermediate outcomes
    Mean A1C level (%)7.8 ± 1.77.8 ± 1.77.7 ± 1.67.8 ± 1.70.17
    A1C <7%1,766 (34.3)497 (32.8)659 (35.5)610 (34.2)0.26
    Mean LDL level (mg/dl)108.8 ± 32.9109.8 ± 33.7108.1 ± 32.6108.7 ± 32.40.33
    LDL <100 (mg/dl)1,973 (42.3)560 (41.8)707 (42.3)706 (42.7)0.89
    SBP (mmHg)135.0 ± 18.7136.3 ± 19.0134.8 ± 18.4134.0 ± 18.5<0.01
    DBP (mmHg)75.5 ± 11.175.7 ± 11.175.5 ± 11.175.3 ± 11.00.64
    BP control (mmHg)
    BP <130/80 mmHg1,422 (27.7)389 (25.2)493 (26.9)540 (30.5)<0.01
    SF-12 physical health score43.7 ± 7.042.1 ± 7.443.8 ± 6.944.9 ± 6.6<0.01
    SF-12 mental health score45.1 ± 6.544.1 ± 6.745.1 ± 6.545.9 ± 6.1<0.01
  • Data are n (%) or means ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * n = 7,830. BP, blood pressure.