Table 2—

RRRs, P values, and 95% CIs for the multinomial logistic regression

U.S.
Cardiovascular diseases*
Other noncommunicable diseases
Communicable diseases
RRRP value95% CIRRRP value95% CIRRRP value95% CI
Race and sex
    White NH men1.001.001.00
    White NH women0.78<0.0010.76–0.801.040.0081.01–1.071.020.3940.97–1.08
    Black NH men0.83<0.0010.81–0.860.83<0.0010.81–0.851.15<0.0011.09–1.22
    Black NH women0.66<0.0010.64–0.680.79<0.0010.76–0.810.890.0010.84–0.95
    Hispanic men0.79<0.0010.76–0.810.79<0.0010.76–0.821.050.2530.97–1.13
    Hispanic women0.59<0.0010.57–0.610.78<0.0010.75–0.820.860.0010.79–0.94
    Other NH men1.010.6050.96–1.070.910.0040.86–0.971.27<0.0011.13–1.42
    Other NH women0.73<0.0010.69–0.770.87<0.0010.81–0.921.160.0171.03–1.30
    Place of death (in hospital)1.16<0.0011.14–1.170.91<0.0010.90–0.922.89<0.0012.80–2.98
Educational level
    Below high school0.94<0.0010.93–0.960.95<0.0010.93–0.970.970.2320.93–1.02
    Below college1.000.8860.98–1.011.010.3570.99–1.031.000.8580.97–1.04
    College or more1.001.001.00
Age
    20–24 years0.17<0.0010.13–0.240.30<0.0010.23–0.370.800.3340.51–1.25
    25–29 years0.22<0.0010.18–0.270.27<0.0010.22–0.321.070.6530.79–1.45
    30–34 years0.39<0.0010.35–0.440.30<0.0010.26–0.341.120.3280.89–1.40
    35–39 years0.51<0.0010.47–0.560.30<0.0010.27–0.331.260.011.06–1.50
    40–44 years0.66<0.0010.62–0.710.39<0.0010.36–0.421.44<0.0011.25–1.65
    45–49 years0.76<0.0010.72–0.800.46<0.0010.44–0.491.29<0.0011.15–1.45
    50–54 years0.930.0010.89–0.970.56<0.0010.53–0.591.100.0591.00–1.23
    55–59 years0.980.2720.95–1.020.70<0.0010.67–0.731.030.5260.94–1.12
    60–64 years1.000.8620.97–1.030.85<0.0010.82–0.880.960.3520.89–1.04
    65–69 years1.001.001.00
    70–74 years1.05<0.0011.03–1.081.10<0.0011.07–1.131.20<0.0011.13–1.27
    75–79 years1.040.011.01–1.081.31<0.0011.26–1.361.33<0.0011.23–1.44
    80–84 years1.11<0.0011.07–1.151.25<0.0011.20–1.301.62<0.0011.49–1.76
    85+ years1.15<0.0011.11–1.191.13<0.0011.09–1.182.14<0.0011.97–2.32
SBP1.01<0.0011.01–1.010.98<0.0010.98–0.981.000.5590.99–1.00
BMI1.03<0.0011.02–1.031.02<0.0011.01–1.031.020.0021.01–1.04
Cardiologists0.96<0.0010.95–0.960.96<0.0010.95–0.960.94<0.0010.93–0.95
Endocrinologists1.030.0011.01–1.051.05<0.0011.03–1.071.13<0.0011.08–1.18
Nephrologists1.07<0.0011.05–1.081.010.2840.99–1.031.19<0.0011.14–1.23
Mexico
Cardiovascular diseases
Other noncommunicable diseases
Communicable diseases
RRRP value95% CIRRRP value95% CIRRRP value95% CI
Sex (women)1.26<0.0011.22–1.301.000.970.97–1.031.16<0.0011.08–1.24
Insurance (insured)1.19<0.0011.15–1.231.27<0.0011.24–1.310.77<0.0010.73–0.82
Necropsy (performed)1.42<0.0011.25–1.601.100.1240.97–1.251.320.0161.05–1.66
Place of death (in hospital)1.87<0.0011.81–1.921.42<0.0011.38–1.462.84<0.0012.67–3.03
Educational level
    Below high school0.73<0.0010.70–0.770.76<0.0010.73–0.790.970.4860.87–1.07
    Below college0.890.0010.84–0.950.910.0030.86–0.970.920.1840.80–1.04
    College or more1.001.001.00
Age
    20–24 years0.22<0.0010.11–0.460.45<0.0010.31–0.662.61<0.0011.60–4.26
    25–29 years0.17<0.0010.09–0.330.620.0010.48–0.814.48<0.0013.20–6.27
    30–34 years0.33<0.0010.24–0.440.67<0.0010.55–0.812.56<0.0011.92–3.39
    35–39 years0.38<0.0010.30–0.480.900.1580.79–1.043.24<0.0012.59–4.05
    40–44 years0.48<0.0010.42–0.550.850.0020.77–0.942.13<0.0011.78–2.55
    45–49 years0.63<0.0010.57–0.700.960.2920.88–1.041.51<0.0011.28–1.78
    50–54 years0.65<0.0010.60–0.700.88<0.0010.83–0.941.240.0011.09–1.42
    55–59 years0.73<0.0010.69–0.780.88<0.0010.83–0.931.060.3990.93–1.20
    60–64 years0.85<0.0010.81–0.900.920.0010.87–0.961.020.7720.91–1.14
    65–69 years1.001.001.00
    70–74 years1.52<0.0011.44–1.611.20<0.0011.14–1.271.44<0.0011.28–1.62
    75–79 years1.66<0.0011.57–1.761.27<0.0011.20–1.341.56<0.0011.38–1.76
    80–84 years1.83<0.0011.72–1.941.20<0.0011.14–1.281.79<0.0011.58–2.03
    85+ years1.72<0.0011.62–1.831.070.0311.01–1.142.34<0.0012.06–2.64
BMI1.20<0.0011.19–1.221.06<0.0011.05–1.081.15<0.0011.12–1.18
SBP1.01<0.0011.01–1.021.000.0920.99–1.001.01<0.0011.01–1.02
  • For each outcome and for each independent variable, RRR measures the probability of death being assigned to that disease category relative to diabetes and relative to the same probability if the independent variable were set to its reference value, which has an RRR of 1.0 (see ref. 15) for details). Diabetes includes type 1 and 2, malnutrition related, and other diabetes. The corresponding ICD-10 codes are E10–E14. We did not include deaths assigned to injuries (intentional and unintentional) as the underlying cause-of-death in the statistical analysis of coding comparability because assignment to external causes is substantially more likely to be valid/comparable. The corresponding ICD-10 codes are V01–Y89. NH refers to non-Hispanics. Age-group 65–69 years, educational level of college or more, and the race-sex combination of white-NH-men in the U.S. and men in Mexico were the absorbed categories (i.e., RRR = 1.0) for the models. All RRRs are in reference to these groups.

  • *

    * Cardiovascular diseases include rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, inflammatory heart diseases, and other cardiac diseases. The corresponding ICD-10 codes are: I00–I99.

  • Other noncommunicable diseases include malignant neoplasms, other neoplasms, endocrine disorders, neuropsychiatric conditions, sense organ diseases, respiratory diseases, digestive diseases, genitourinary diseases, skin diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, congenital anomalies, and oral conditions. The corresponding ICD-10 codes are C00–C97, D00–D48, D65–D89, E03–E07, E15–E16, E20–E34, E51–E88, F01–F99, G06–G98, H00–H61, H68–H93, J30–J98, K00–K92, N00–N64, N75–N98, L00–L98, M00–M99, and Q00–Q99.

  • Communicable diseases include infectious and parasitic diseases, respiratory infections, maternal conditions, conditions arising during the perinatal period, and nutritional deficiencies. The corresponding ICD-10 codes are A00–B99, G00–G04, N70–N73, J00–J06, J10–J18, J20–J22, H65–H66, O00–O99, P00–P96, E00–E02, E40–E46, E50, and D50–D64.